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The principal ground of complaint was the disobedience of the command of 1616, and the scientific reasons which Galileo again urged in support of his theory were not appreciated any better than before, but were met with religious arguments. The sentence was solemnly pronounced June 22. It set forth the offence of the accused in teaching a condemned proposition, violating his pledge, and obtaining a sanction for his book by improper means, declared him to be vehemently suspected of heresy, required him to abjure his errors and all other heresies against the Catholic church, prohibited his Dialogue," and condemned him to be imprisoned at the inquisition during pleasure, and to recite once a week for three years the seven penitential psalms. Galileo made his abjuration with all the formality which commonly attended such proceedings. Clad in sackcloth and kneeling, he swore upon the Gospels never again to teach the earth's motion and the sun's stability; he declared his detestation of the proscribed opinions, and promised to perform the penance laid upon him.
Then rising from the ground, he is said to have exclaimed in an under tone: E pur si muove-" It does move, for all that!"After four days' confinement under the eyes of the holy office, Galileo returned to the Tuscan ambassador's, but for the rest of his life he was kept under surveillance. He passed some time in Siena, in the archbishop's palace, and in December reentered his own house at Arcetri, near Florence, where he remained until the close of his life. The death of his favorite daughter Maria so affected his already broken health that he begged permission to visit Florence for medical assistance. It was only after four years (1638) that he obtained it, and then under severe restrictions. He seems now to have paid little attention to astronomy, but employed himself in other branches of natural philosophy. In 1638 his book of "Dialogues on Local Motion," completed two years before, which he prized above all his other works, was printed at Amsterdam by Louis Elzevir. In 1636 also he discovered the moon's diurnal libration. In 1637 a disease which had impaired his right eye for some years attacked the left also, and in a few months he became totally blind.
The severity of the inquisition was somewhat relaxed in his affliction; he was visited by eminent men of his own and foreign countries, among whom were Milton, Gassendi, and Diodati, and in the last years of his life his pupils Viviani and Torri-celli formed part of his household. Almost complete deafness afterward came upon him, and at last, while preparing for a continuation of his Dialogues on Motion," he died of fever and palpitation of the heart.-Galileo was of middle size, well formed, with fair complexion and penetrating eyes. He was cheerful, frank, and amiable; frugal and abstemious, but fond of gay company and good wine, and profuse in his hospitality. He was unmarried, but left three natural children. His temper was quick, but placable, and his general accomplishments made him a favorite in mixed circles. His scientific writings were marked by a clear, elegant, and spirited style, which he owed to a careful study of the literature of his country. He was a great admirer of Ariosto, whose Orlando furioso, it is said, he knew by heart, and wrote severe Considerations on Tasso" (Venice, 1793), to show that author's imitation of his favorite poet.-The following is a list of his principal works which were printed separately: Operazioni del compasso geometricio e militare (Venice, 1606); Difesa contra alle calumnie ed imposture diBalt. Capra nella considerazione astronomica sopra la nuova Stella del 1604 (1607); Sidereus Nuncius (Florence, Venice, and Frankfort, 1610); Discorso intorno alle cose che stanno in sul acqua e che in quella si muovono (Florence, 1612); Epistola ad M. Velserum de Maculis Solarious (1612); De Macules Solaribus et Stellis circa Jovem errantibus accuratior Disquisitio (Augsburg, 1612); Isto-ria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macltie solari e loro accidenti (Rome, 1613); Dissertatio de Cometa Anni 1619 (Florence); 1l saggiatore (Rome, 1623); Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, Tolemaico e Copernicano (Florence, 1632; a Latin translation by Ber-negger, entitled Systema Cosmicum, etc, Stras-burg, 1635; an English version,"The Systeme of the World, in four Dialogues, Inglished from the Original Italian Copy by Thomas Salus-bury," London, 1661); D'iscorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche attenenti alia mecanica ed i rnotimenti locali (Leyden, 1638; an English translation under the title "Mathematical Discourses of Mechanics," by Thomas Weston, London, 1730); Epistola} tres de Conciliatione Sacra; Scriptural cum Systemate Telluris Mobi-lis (printed with Gassendi's Apologia, Lyons, 1649). Collections of Galileo's works were published at Bologna by Manolessi (2 vols. 4to, 1656); Florence, by Bottari (3 vols. 4to, 1718); Padua (4 vols. 4to," 1744); Milan (13 vols. 8vo, 1808-'ll). Eugenio Alberi edited a complete edition, with the life by Viviani (16 vols., Florence, 1842-'56).-For lives of Galileo see Viviani, Vita del Galilei, in the Fasti consolari dcll' accademia Fiorentina; Frisi, Elogio del Galileo (Leghorn, 1775); Brenna, in Fabroni's VitaeItalorum; Nelli, Vita e commercio lette-rario di Galileo Galilei (2 vols. 4to, Lausanne, 1793); Lord Brougham's Life of Galileo" (1829); Libri, Histoire de la vie et des aiuvres de Galileo Galilei (Paris, 1841); Biot, in Mi-chaud's Biographie universelle; Drinkwater-Bethune, Life of Galileo," in the Library of Useful Knowledge;" Sir David Brewster, in Lardner's "Cabinet Cyclopaedia," reprinted with lives of Tycho Brahe and Kepler under the title Martyrs of Science (London, 1841). Among recent biographies are those of Phila-rete Chasles (1862), Madden (1863), Trouessard (1856), Pauhappe (1868), and "The Private Life of Galileo" (London and Boston, 1870); also Botta's Italian Philosophy," in vol. ii. of Ueberweg's History of Philosophy," translated by George S. Morris (New York, 1874).