Gallipoli (anc. Callipolis or Anxa), a fortified seaport town of Italy, in the province of Lecce, on an island in the gulf of Taranto, 29 m. W. S. W. of Otranto; pop. about 9,500. It is connected with a suburb on the mainland by a bridge, is well built, and has a castle, a fine cathedral, and several convents. The harbor is good, but difficult of access. Gallipoli has manufactures of woollen goods, muslin, and cotton stockings, and is the great mart for an inferior kind of olive oil known as Gallipoli oil, which is collected in large tanks excavated in the limestone rock. The town carries on a considerable trade, and the steamers plying between Ancona and Naples call here regularly. Many of the inhabitants are engaged in the tunny fisheries. Gallipoli is the seat of a bishop.