Gascony (Fr. Gascogne), an old province in the S. W. corner of France, bounded N. by Guienne, E. by Languedoc. and the county of Foix, from which it was partly separated by the upper Garonne, S. by the Pyrenees and Bearn, and W. by the Atlantic (the gulf of Gascony). It was originally inhabited by a population of Iberian blood, and received from the Romans the name of Novempopulana or Aquitania Tertia, which was changed to that of Gascony about the middle of the 6th century, when it was occupied by the Vascones, a tribe of northern Spain, whom the Goths had driven across the Pyrenees. It was more than once invaded by the Merovingian kings, but was never entirely subjugated until the time of Charlemagne. The supremacy of the French crown being finally established, the country was placed under the direct sovereignty of the duke of Aquitaine. Through the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine, ex-queen of France, with Henry Plantagenet, Gascony, in conjunction with the whole country which that princess held south of the Loire, fell to the crown of England in 1152. For 300 years it remained under the same allegiance, and returned by conquest to France in 1453. It formed afterward, with Guienne, one of the great governments of that country, and is now mainly comprised in the departments of Hautes-Pvrenees, Gers, and Landes.