Carding Of Cotton is the process of disentangling and arranging in parallel rows the fibres of the cotton so as to facilitate the twisting of them together. Carding may be compared to the combing and brushing of one's hair, and the card combines the properties of the comb and brush, being a large brush with wire teeth instead of bristles. These teeth are inserted in strips of leather, which are fastened to the surface of a cylinder. Several of such cylinders are so arranged that the ends of the teeth are nearly in contact, and the cotton being brought to them is caught up, passed from one to the other and combed out, as the cylinders turn round, in the form of beautiful films or fleeces. These films, which are the width of the cylinders, are next contracted to a narrow ribbon by being passed through a funnel and drawn out in order to make them ready for the next process, called spinning.

For spinning cotton there are two kinds of machines used - "throstles" and "mules." The throstle is employed in the spinning of yarn for warps. This yarn has its fibre more closely twisted than that spun upon the mule, and is more esteemed for certain purposes, especially for making sewing thread. The mule, or mule-jenny, differs from the throstle in that it spins a yarn much finer and softer, though more woolly in texture than throstle-yarn; mule-yarn, besides forming the weft of cloths, is also doubled and used for a variety of purposes wherein a lightly-twisted, thread-like yarn is not required. The principle of attenuating the yarn is, however, the same in both machines, consisting of several pairs of rollers turned by means of machinery. The lower roller of each pair is fluted or furrowed, and the upper one is covered with leather to induce it to take hold of the cotton. If there were only one pair of rollers, it is clear that the fibre passed between them would be drawn forward by the revolution of the rollers, similar to running a string through a clothes-wringer; but the cotton would merely undergo a certain degree of compression or flattening from their action. No sooner, however, has the fibre begun to pass through the first pair of rollers than it is received by a second pair, which are made to revolve four times as fast as the first pair, thus attenuating it, and so on through several sets of rollers, drawing the thread out finer and finer. By this ingenious contrivance the mass of cotton may be drawn out into a thread of any desired length or size

Of

No. 10

yarn,

10

hanks

of 840 yards

each

weigh

one

pound

"

" 20

"

20

"

" 840

"

"

"

"

"

" 50

"

50

"

" 840

"

"

"

"

"

" 60

"

60

"

" 840

"

"

"

"

"

" 70

"

70

"

" 840

"

"

"

"

"

" 80

"

80

"

" 840

"

"

"

"

"

" 90

"

90

"

" 840

"

"

"

"

"

" 100

"

100

"

" 840

"

"

"

"

Cotton after being spun is folded in hanks of 840 yards each. The number ox "size" of this cotton yarn depends upon the number of hanks, 840 yards long, that weigh one pound, as illustrated by the following table:

Cotton is never woven in its natural state, that is, as it comes from the spinning frame. It always receives a dressing or coating of some kind of liquid " size," which is allowed to dry on the yarn before the weaving begins. The object is to diminish the roughness on the surface of the threads, and to increase their tension power, thereby facilitating the weaving. A manufacturing firm in Connecticut, some years ago, produced the finest cotton yarn ever woven into muslin by machinery - 700s. The same firm has produced since yarn No. 2150, but this was merely for experimental and not for weaving purposes. A pound of the finest Sea Island cotton spun of this fineness would be a thousand miles in length. Some idea of the tenuity of cotton fibres may be formed when it is remembered that 14,000 to 20,000 individual filaments of American cotton only weigh one grain, so that there are about 140,000,000 to every pound, and each hair weighs only about the 1-17,000 part of a grain, and if the separate fibres were placed end to end in a straight line, one pound would reach 2,200 miles. The beauty or excellence of some cotton cloths consist in the closeness of their texture; that of others, in the openess and regularity of the intervals between the warp apd weft threads. Recent experiments have shown that cotton may be heated to 248° F. for three hours without apparent injury. The same is true of printed cottons. The temperature, however, if continued for a long period, will slightly alter the color of cotton, but will not otherwise injure it. According to the most reliable historical and manufacturing authorities, no cotton sheetings, shirtings, ginghams or checks were made in the United States prior to 1790. All these classes of goods were then imported, being of English manufacture, and of linen warp with cotton weft.

The accompanying table gives the number of cotton spindles in the United States in 1880 and 1890.

 

1880.

1890.

Alabama .........................................................

49,432

96,647

Arkansas ........................................................

2,015

13,700

California ........................................................

...

• • • •

England in 1890, had in operation 42,740,000 cotton spindles; European Continent 23,380,000; East India 2,490,000; Canada, Mexico aud South America 600,000, and Japan 100,000. The largest cotton mill in the world is that of Kranholm, in Russia. This colossal establishment contains 340,000 spindles, and 2,200 looms, and gives employment to 7,000 hands.

 

1880.

1890.

Colorado .................................................

• • • .

...

Connecticut ............................................

939,376

1,023,928

Dakota ...................................................

. • • •

• • • •

Delaware ...............................................

46,188

61,714

Florida ....................................................

816

1,300

Georgia ..................................................

198,656

442,148

Idaho .....................................................

• • • >

...

Illinois ..................................................

4,830

26,000

Indiana ................................................

33,396

61,868

Iowa ....................................................

...

6,000

Kansas ...............................................

...

...

Kentucky ..........................................

9,022

42,500

Louisiana ...........................................

6,096

61,168

Maine ...............................................

695,924

812,722

Maryland ..........................................

125,706

176,800

Massachusetts .................................

4,236,084

5,905,875

Michigan ..........................................

5,100

...

Minnesota .........................................

1,708

...

Mississippi .......................................

18,658

54,800

Missouri ..........................................

19,302

17,500

Montana .............................................

...

...

Nebraska ...........................................

...

...

New Hampshire ................................

944,053

1,207,312

New Jersey ..........................................

232,221

351,068

New York ...........................................

561,658

619,472

North Carolina ...................................

92,385

321,070

Ohio............................................

13,327

26,152

Oregon ...............................................

...

 

Pennsylvania .......................................

425,391

445,962

Rhode Island ......................................

1,746,539

1,948.958

South Carolina ..................................

82,334

351,040

South Dakota ....................................

...

...

Tennessee ........................................

35,736

116,788

Texas .............................................

2,648

17,734

Utah............................................

432

288

Vermont ..........................................

55,081

62,775

Virginia ..........................................

44,340

79,612

Washington ....................................

...

...

West Virginia ................................

...

...

Wisconsin .......................................

10,000

32,128

Wyoming ..........................................

......

Total ................................

10,653,435

14,385,024

Crop Of The United States For Sixty Years

YeaR.

Bales.

YeaR.

Bales.

Year

Bales.

Year.

Bales.

1829......

870,415

1844......

2,030,409 '

1859_____

3,851,481

1877......

4,485,423

1830_____

976,845

1845_____

2,394,503

1860_____

4,669,770

1878......

4,811,265

1831_____

1,038,848

1846......

2,100,537

1861......

3,656,006 No record

1879......

5,073,531

1832......

987,487

1847......

1,778,651

1862-1865-

1880......

5,757,397

1833......

1,070,438

1848......

2,347,634

1866....

2,193,987

1881......

6,589,329

1834_____

1,205,324

1849......

2,728,596

1867_____

2,019,774

1882......

5,435,845

1835......

1,254,328

1850......

2,096,706

1868......

2,593,993

1883......

6,992,234

1836.....-

1,360,752

1851......

2,355,257

1869....

2,439,039

1884......

5,714,052

1837_____

1,422,930

1852......

3.015,029

1870......

3,154,946

1885......

5,669,021

1838_____

1,801,497

1853......

3,262,882

1871......

4,352,817

1886......

6,550,215

1839_____

1,360,532

1854......

2,930,027

1872......

2,974,351

1887......

6,513,624

1840......

2,177.835

1855_____

2,847,338

1873......

3,930,508

1888......

7,017,707

1841......

1,634,945

1856......

3,527.845

1874....

4,170,388

1889......

6,935,082

1842......

1,683,574

1857......

2,939,519

1875......

3,832,991

1890......

7,313,726

1843......

2,378,875

1858......

3,113,962

1876_____

4.669.288

   

The average net weight per bale is 440 pounds.

Exports And Domestic Consumption Of American Cotton

 

1889-90.

1888-89.

1887-88.

1885-86.

1886-87.

1884-85.

1883-84.

Export to Europe Consumption U.S., Canada, etc.. .

Bales. 4,885,326 2,431,757

7,317,083

Bales. 4,700,198 2,372,641

Bales. 4,602,248 2,259,606

Bales.

4,296,825 2.087,785

Bales. 4,414,326 2,265.324

Bales. 3,898,905 1.764.326

Bales. 3,880,466 2,042,867

Total.......

7,072,830

6,861,650

6,384,610

6,679,650 5,663,231

5.923,333

Consumption Bales, 400 lbs.

Great Britain.

Continent.

Total

Europe.

Total

United

States.

Total World.

1880-81........................

3,572,000 3,640,000 3,744,000 3,666,000 3,433,000 3,628,000 3,694,000 3,841,000 3,770,000 4,027,000

2,956,000 3,198,000 3,380,000 3,380,000 3,255,000 3,465,000 3,640,000 3,796,000 4,069,000 4,277,000

6,528,000 6,838,000 7,124,000 7,046,000 6,688,000 7,093,000 7,334,000 7,637,000 7,839,000 8,304,000

2,118,000 2,197,000 2,375,000 2,244,000 1,909,000 2.378,000 2,423,000 2,530,000 2,685,000 2,731,000

8,640,000

1881-82........................

9,035,000

1882-83........................

9,499,000

1883-84.........______........

9,290,000

1884-85_____________

8,597,000

1885-86........................

9,871,000

1886-87 .............

9,757,000

1887-88 .........

10,167,000

1888-89.........................

10,524,000

1889-90_____...................

11,035,000

Cotton Consumption Of The Entire World. Sources Of Cotton Supply

 

Total.

   

Total.

 

Bales.

   

Bales.

America

7,434,000

 

Brazil, W, I., etc..............

290,000

East India..........___________

1,740,000

     

Egypt........................—

460,000

 

Total..........................

9,984,000

Smyrna.........................

40,000

 

Average weight.....___.........

455.1

     

Bales of 400 lbs.................

11,836,000

7