Moire (Mwo'-Ra). The French term for clouded or watered silks. The weave on which a moire effect is produced is usually a gros grain. The goods are woven in what the Lyons weavers call en jumelle, that is, in double widths, two pieces being woven together. This is necessary in order to obtain the bold waterings or moirage, which process depends not only on the quality of the silk, but greatly in the way in which they are folded when subjected to the enormous pressure in watering. When the pieces are being folded, care is taken that the grains of one piece shall fall into the cavities of the other, and vice versa, for if they ride one across the other the watering will be spoiled. For more careful work, the outside edges of the two pieces are provided with linen threads at stated intervals, which are then knotted together so as to keep the pieces better over each other and the grains perfectly parallel. That very careful weaving, in the first place, is indispensable for obtaining good results, will be obvious. After being properly folded the silk to be moired is wetted slightly, and then submitted to an enormous pressure, generally in a hydraulic machine. The pressure (generally from 80 to 100 tons per piece) applied on the material being uneven, the grain is flattened in the parts desired and the result resembles waves, or moisture drawn into curious lines. For moire antique the pattern is engraved on a brass roller, and the material passed between it and one having a plain surface, under great pressure. This style is sometimes called by manufacturers long moire, the moirage being more scattered, longer, and in finer, but not less effective, lines. According to the figures produced on the cloth, moires are divided into plain and fancy, the latter showing more elaborate patterns. Moire antique is an expensive fabric and is often seen in fancy combinations with satin stripes and swivel effects. The same principle that governs the production of these effects on broad goods also applies to ribbons. Moire nacre is a flowered pattern woven on the Jacquard loom, imitating very successively the natural color and shine of mother of pearl. The moire process is sometimes applied to a mohair fabric known as moreen, which is only an English corruption of the word moire. [See Watering]