This section is from the "A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods" book, by George S. Cole. Also available from Amazon: A complete dictionary of dry goods and history of silk, cotton, linen, wool and other fibrous substances,: Including a full explanation of the modern processes ... together with various useful tables.
Pile. [From Latin pi/us, hair] Nap of a regular and closely set kind, consisting of threads standing close together, and shaved smooth, so as to form a uniform and even surface. In dry goods parlance the term is generally confined to the surface-covering of fabrics which is woven in loops and afterward either left standing thus or sheared down to a certain height, as in velvet, plush and various kinds of carpets. [See Nap]