Carpets. A heavy woven or felted fabric, usually of wool, but also of cotton, hemp, straw, etc., used as a floor covering, made in breadths to be sewed together and tacked to the floor. The word is supposed by some to have been originally derived from Cairo, a city in Egypt, but more probably from the Latin carpeta, woolen cloth, through carpere, to pluck wool. Formerly the carpet was in one piece, like the present Persian carpet, and was sold (as it still is in the East) for covering beds, couches, tables, etc., and for hangings. The first woven carpets were produced in Egypt, Babylonia, Persia and Hindustan, whence they were introduced into Europe, where they are supposed to have been first manufactured by the French in the year 1600, and next in England in the reign of James I, about 15 years later. In Fuller's Church History of England, published in 1556, it is stated that "private men's halls were hung with leather cloths; their tables and beds were covered with capes (mantles) instead of carpets and coverlets."

The earlier fashion of floor covering was a spread of sweet rushes or straw, and it is only within comparatively modern times that fabrics have been used for that purpose. Down to the period of the Valois Kings of France (1300 to 1400), as shown in many paintings, the practice was to strew the floors with rushes, hay, sweet smelling herbs, flowers and foliage. This custom prevailed until the time when velvet-pile or ornamental carpets came into use and the looms of Europe succeeded in imitating them. The strewing of the floors then gave place to the velvet fabric. The manufacture of carpets is traced in the records of French Monastic Orders as far back as the 10th and 11th centnries; but in all likelihood these were merely embroidered and not woven fabrics and instead of being in general use were only found in exceedingly rare instances. The actual manufacture of carpets in Europe is assigned to the reign of Henry the IV of France, between 1589 and 1610, and is said to have been introduced there direct from Persia. Carpets may be described as migratory manufactures, as in almost every instance, the industry after being successfully established in a town, has been taken elsewhere, the carpet still retaining, however, the name of the town where it was first made. Thus, Axminster carpets which were first made at Axminster, England, are now produced in Glasgow, and the Wilton factories long ago transferred their business from Wilton to Kilmarnock; Kidderminster carpets are no longer made at Kidderminster, but instead in Scotland and at Yorkshire, England; while Brussels carpets which were once made exclusively at Brussels, Belgium, are now made the wide world over. In Asia, where carpets were first invented, they are seldom used except to sit or sleep upon, thus their use even has been perverted.

Prior to the American Revolution, woven floor coverings, with the exception of domestic rag carpets, were almost unknown in this country. A few "Scots" carpets from the "other side" had found their way into some private city houses, but such a rarity were these considered that country people, on being ushered into apartments where they were laid, instinctively tip-toed around them, in awe lest they should soil them. Ten years later, it appears by early newspapers, small importations were being made. In an advertisement in the New York Gazette of June 30, 1760, a firm states that they will sell among other goods at their store in Smith street, some "Scots" carpets. In 1761 the same firm advertises Turkey carpets, and in 1763 both English and Scots carpets. In 1776 the only floor covering in general use was the rag carpet before mentioned, made with a stout yarn warp supplied by farm-house spinning wheels. Then ensued the long war of the Revolution, and the consequent commercial depression. The majority of the people, possessed of but little wealth before the war, were now in no condition of temper or purse to encourage the importation of English goods. Before the close of the year 1791, it is said, the first carpet factory in the United States was erected by Wm. P. Sprague at Philadelphia. To-day the annual product of that city alone, if laid in line, would almost girdle the globe. The first carpet made by the Philadelphia mill was a hand-made, finger-tufted fabric, designed for the United States Senate chamber. Attracting the attention of Alexander Hamilton, it induced him in his report on finance for that year to allude to the new home industry, and to recommend as an encouraging measure, the imposition of a small duty on foreign made carpets. There soon sprang up in Philadelphia and elsewhere small works for the production of two-ply, (or, as they were called, "Kidderminsters,") three-ply ingrains and Venetian carpets. In 1800 Jacquard invented the simple, yet wonderful machine which has always borne his name, its first application being to the manufacture of figured goods. In the course of a few years a number of factories were started. In 1825 a carpet works was in full operation at Medway, Mass., which later merged into a company now second to none in the world - the Lowell. Up to 1840 the weaving of carpets of all descriptions was performed by hand. The attempt had been repeatedly made in England to adapt the power-loom to ingrain-weaving, but without success. About this time, Erastus Brigham Bigelow, a young but already successful inventor, turned his attention to carpet weaving, and was trying, with small success, to interest carpet manufacturers and obtain the pecuniary aid for his experiments in weaving ingrains by power. The object sought for was a loom that could make rapidly a carpet of smooth, even surface, good, regular selvedge, and figures that would match perfectly. In weaving by hand the weaver can only approximate to regularity of figures by the closest attention to his work and the exercise of superior skill and judgment. Mr Bigelow's improved method of producing figures that would match by steam power, was patented in 1845. The same machinery was found to be adapted to the weaving of Brussels and tapestry, the weaving of which by power had previously been considered an impossibility. In 1840 ingrains were being woven at Lowell by hand looms at the rate of eight yards per day. With the adaptation of power forty yards per day could be produced. The rate of increase in Brussels was from four yards per day to twenty yards per day, and in Axminster from one and a half yards to fifteen. The application of steam not only economized time and labor, but it improved these fabrics until they surpassed the best of their kind in any other part of the world. The new invention not only revolutionized the weaving departments of carpet factories, but infused new life into the industry of the whole country, building up small villages of a few hundred inhabitants into prosperous towns, numbering their populations by thousands.

Carpets may be divided into two general classes: one, a double fabric consisting essentially of two distinct webs woven at the same time, and held firmly together by the weft threads, showing a different pattern upon either side. The other general variety have the raised pile upon one side, like that of velvet.

Ingrain Carpet consists of a cotton or wool warp with a wool filling, and is woven in strips one yard wide. It is composed of two distinct webs interwoven together at one operation, and is therefore a double or two-ply carpet. Three-ply carpet is composed of three distinct webs, which by interlacing and interchanging their threads produce a different pattern on each side, and at the same time permitting much greater variety of color, with a corresponding increase of thickness and durability in the texture. The best quality of all-wool "Extra Super" ingrain has 1080 warp threads to the yard, 30 to the inch; and thirteen and a half pairs of filling-threads to the inch. This, is the largest number of filling-threads beaten into any "extra super" carpet made on a power loom. In some patterns these threads are doubled and twisted to produce certain effects in color. To make cheaper qualities of carpets these filling-threads are lessened a half pair at a time until they are reduced to six pair to the inch, which latter grade is about the cheapest quality made under the title of all-wool ingrain. Thus the quality of ingrain carpets is determined by the number of pairs of filling-threads per inch, and is known in trade as 6, 8, 10 up to 13 1/2 pairs per inch. This is similar to the manner of indicating the quality of Brussels and tapestry by the number of "cords" or "wires" per inch. "Twelve-pair Supers" (or mediums) contain twelve double woolen threads to the inch in the filling, and 960 warp threads to the yard. This grade is usually preferred by consumers on account of its being all-wool and holding its color better - although as a matter of fact they are not as strong as the best "Extra Super" with wool filling and cotton warp. These latter have the same number of threads as the all-wool Extra Super. Wool-filling ingrain carpets are not made in lower grades than 8-pairs to the inch. Union Extra Supers were first made of cheap wool and cotton carded together for the high colors, and while the filling-threads were part wool and part cotton, the warp was all of cotton. At present, competition has so cheapened them, that they are mostly all cotton. All grades below this variety are made of cotton, or cotton and shoddy-wool termed in trade 12-, 10-, 8 1/2-, 7- and 6-pair cottons. Some of the finest grades of ingrain carpets now manufactured are copied after the most artistic patterns of Body and Tapestry Brussels, both in color and design. In England ingrain carpets are called Kidderminster, while in Scotland they are termed Scotch carpets.

Ingrain is a term used in connection with many textile fabrics meaning dyed before woven, that is, dyed in the grain or thread before the operation of weaving, in distinction from printed or stamped fabrics.

Brussels, or Body Brussels as it is sometimes called, was first manufactured in Brussels, Belgium, in the year 1710. In 1720 they were first produced in England by some French Huguenot weavers who many years before had been driven out of France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes. In regard to the annulling of this edict which had been in force for nearly one hundred years, and the consequent exodus of the Huguenots to England and other countries it has been well said: "Nothing short of a great history could tell how the manufactures of all European countries were improved and stimulated by the peaceful incursions of over a million of these steadfast, industrious and highly-skilled artisan refugees. They were the thriftiest and readiest hands in France; they carried the arts and taste which were at that time the special gift of their country to every city and country in Europe and America. They crowded into the armies which were arrayed against their oppressors, they helped to man the ships which destroyed the navy of France; they planted their industries in a hundred places, and gave wealth and prosperity to other lands. No discovery whether of science or adventure, no victory, whether over inanimate matter or adverse forces, has had a greater influence upon the fortunes of England than the signing of the decree which, intended to coerce these worthy artisans wrought more disaster upon its authors." A number or these religious refugees settled at Wilton, England, and in the course of time began the weaving of carpets. They obtained a royal charter and formed themselves into a corporate body for their mutual protection. One of the peculiar terms of this charter forbade the weaving of carpets anywhere within ten miles of the little town of Wilton; thus early was the "protection of home industries" inaugurated. It is easy to see how the carpets became known as "Brussels," without doubt from the city where they were first made, and also " Royal Wilton"— Wilton from the town, and Royal from the charter. When borders came to be more extensively used they were stock numbered the same as the carpets to which they belonged. Frequently there was a stair carpet, also, which matched the carpet and border, and had the same stock number. These were then and are to this day distinguished by the terms, "Body" " Border" and " Stair." Body Brussels is a very superior texture, composed of a linen back and a woolen pile, having a rich, corded appearance. The quality of Brussels and Tapestry carpet is partially determined by the number of these cords per inch, varying from 8 the cheapest to 16 the best. The surface of a Brussel carpet is composed of loops of worsted yarns packed closely together. When any one loop is formed the particular worsted thread of which the loop is a portion sinks beneath the linen or cotton cross-thread (weft) and remains with other threads in the body of the fabric until it is required to form another loop on the surface. These surface loops are held in position by the cross-threads (weft). Not being tied or knotted should any individual loop be caught or pulled by a sharp point in brush, broom, boot or claw, then the worsted underneath will be drawn above the surface and the loose ends will form what is called a case of "sprouting."

These loops which are collectively called the pile, constitute the figure or pattern, and are produced or raised from the linen back, by inserting a series of wires between the linen foundation and the superficial yarn, and looping the yarn tightly over each wire, which leaves a distinct row or "cord." These wires are withdrawn as the weaving proceeds, and there is left a smooth, looped surface as seen in all Brussels carpets. The colors are usually limited to five, (called 5-frame or 6-frame, as the case may be) though in the best goods six colors are introduced. These are warp-dyed and are carried entirely through the linen background from end to end of the piece of carpet. The best qualities are usually 5-frame, that is, the pattern is composed of five different colors. Each is a continuous layer of thread dyed in the yarn, running from end to end of the web, which rises to the surface at close intervals as indicated by the design, and then goes out of sight and sinks into the body of the carpet, showing indistinctly the pattern on the back side. These are the main characteristics which distinguish Brussels carpets from tapestries, in that each color is composed of a thread of itself, dyed in the yarn, which runs the full length of the web, the colors, not being used to produce the pattern on the surface sinking into the body, causing the carpet to be" heavier and firmer and showing indistinctly the pattern on the back.

Tapestry Carpets or Tapestry Brussels, are manufactured by a very ingenious process which was invented and patented in Scotland in 1832. It is composed of one thickness of worsted yarn printed before weaving with the colors which will compose its design when woven. This is woven into a stiff inelastic back composed entirely of jute or hemp. The method of weaving tapestry is a combination of weaving and printing, a pile or surface imitating and very similar to Brussels being produced, in which any desired number of colors is available, while only a single thread is used in making the pile, instead of the five or six which run through Brussels texture. In tapestry weaving the ordinary process of printing is reversed. Instead of the fabric being first woven and then printed, the thread is stamped and afterwards woven up as the warp, forming the pile of the carpet. One thread, or two treated as one, some times miles in length, is colored by steps of half an inch or so, faster than the swiftest runner could make half the distance. When the thread has a been partillcolored in this manner it forms the elements, as it were, of the intended pattern of the fabric. Singly in the long thread it exhibits no regular figure, but when woven up in the proper order the pattern comes into view little by little as the thread is looped around the wires. Unlike the weaving on the Brussels principle, in which the colors cannot exceed five or six, any desired number of colors and shades can be introduced in a Tapestry carpet. The manner of looping over the wires is exactly the same. The back side of Tapestry shows nothing but the plain linen backing into which the pile is woven ; though sometimes unscrupulous manufacturers stamp the back in imitation of a Brussels weave for purposes of deception. The color wears off and the pile sinks down, showing the foundation of the carpet much sooner in Tapestry than in Brussels, but as an offset to this the former are proportionately cheaper in price. Like Brussels, Moquetts and Wiltons they measure 26 inches in width. The quality is determined by the number of "cords" to the inch, termed in trade 10-wire, 9-wire, 8-wire Taps, and so on, the less number of wires or cords to the inch the cheaper and less durable the carpet.

Wilton Carpet is a variety of Brussels carpet in which the loops are opened into an elastic, velvet pile, and is so named from being origin-ally made at Wilton, England; but they differ from Brussels in this: When the wires upon which the loops are formed are drawn out, the worsted loops are cut, giving the fine upright pile or "plush." To effect this the wires over which the yarn is looped, are not round and smooth as the Brussels wires, but are flat and furnished with a knife-edge at the top, which when withdrawn cuts the pile. Wiltons are made of extra fine, non-felting wools, which produce a surface extremely dense and lustrous. Among the respectable "middle-society" class of this country it is the abiding hope and never-faltering ambition of every good housewife to some day to carpet the front parlor with a genuine Wilton. No matter in what community she may reside, the possession of a Wilton affords her a prestige approached only and never excelled by solid walnut furniture or a Steinway Grand. The manufacture of Wilton is said to have been introduced in England through the exertions of Lord Pembroke. These carpets have the advantage of being executed in very beautiful designs, especially the Royal Wilton, in which the pile is raised much higher than in the common fabric of the same name. In the Wiltons made from high class Brussels there are nearly three thousand threads of worsted warp employed on the 27-inch web.

Moquetts is the French term for "tufts of wool." The carpets known by this name are woven substantially after the manner of Brussels, the colors being dyed in the yarn; differing in this, however, that the pile is looped, first in a very coarse foundation to which is afterwards attached a another foundation for the purpose of giving the carpet weight and firmness. In Moquetts the loops instead of being left corded in rows are cut open into an elastic velvet pile, leaving a "plush" appearance. Moquett might be termed an American carpet, not being in much demand in other countries. In coloring they are soft and delicate. The pile of Moquett is much longer and deeper than that of a velvet carpet.

Velvet Carpets are Tapestries cut after the Tapestry proper is made, and though handsome in effect, if the design be good, are neither so durable nor so rich as Wiltons, being like Tapestry made from one length, or frame, of parti-colored yarn, looped and then cut by passing through a machine in which a small knife passes under each row and severs the loops. The patterns have more lustre than in the Tapestries, caused by the colors being given off from the ends of the wool instead of the sides as in Tapes-try.

Imperial Brussels is a variety of Brussels in which the pattern is raised above the ground and its loops cut so as to form a pile, while those of the ground remain uncut.

Axminster Carpets owe their origin to James Templeton, of Scotland, who obtained a patent for his invention in 1840. They were first made at Axminster, England, hence the name. Axminster is at present but a small town of about three thousand persons, and no longer produces the floor covering which so much delighted our forefathers. These carpets are pile fabrics, woven into a strong linen or hempen backing and can be woven of a depth equal to any Oriental production. Their manufacture involves two distinct weaving operations: First, the preparation of "Chenille" strips which form the filling; and second, the carpet weaving proper. The pattern or figure for the carpet is first prepared on paper, and accurately drawn in its proper colors. This is then cut into long, narrow strips and given to the Chenille weaver to guide him as to the colors he is to use, and he proceeds in the regular order that they were cut, with length after length till the whole pattern is woven up. This first web is cut into shreds or strips along its whole length, according to the number of "chenilles" it contains, and the loose edges faced together by a peculiarity in the weaving, so that a double pile projects upward from a finely woven center-rib or back. These chenille strips now form the filling for the second weaving and being woven into a strong linen foundation in the same order that the strips were cut from the original paper pattern, the colors consequently all come together properly, and the parts of the whole design come out gradually as the second weaving proceeds. Axminster carpets are classed with the very finest, surpassing in the depth of pile and beauty of coloring some of the present Oriental productions. " These carpets are frequently three inches thick, and for durability cannot be excelled. It is seldom they find their way into any but wealthy families, as the best grades cannot be secured for less than $9 per yard, although imitations are made as low as $1.25 per yard.

Aubusson Carpet is a variety made at Aubusson, France, generally in one piece to suit the size of the room. They are the finest and most costly loom carpets brought to the United States, being made in the hand or needle-work style of the East Indian carpets, and are highly esteemed for the elegance of its design and coloring. They are generally ornamented with designs after the antique arabesque, but these luxurious articles are necessary confined to the opulent, as the great majority of the middle class in France scarcely know the use of carpets, which are so general with us, tile floors being the most common among them. As previously stated, the manufacture of carpets was introduced into France from Persia by Henry IV. and the magnificent royal factory still exists at Aubusson, in the South of France.

Chenille Carpet is a variety in which the weft is of chenille instead of yarn. The pattern is dyed in the chenille itself, nothing showing on the surface of the carpet but the ends of the chenille fringe.

Felt Carpet is one in which the fibers are matted or felted together without spinning or weaving, consisting of strips of felt set on edge and tightly laced through the center. They are the same on both sides, and are distinguished for their great durability and softness.

Knitted Carpets are made in Germany, and are knit of strips of textile goods, such as woven rag carpet is made of. The knitting is done with wooden needles, and for convenience in this respect is made only about twelve inches wide, the widths being joined together by sewing in the usual manner. The knitted carpet is more durable than the woven rag carpet. Knitted carpet schools have long been established in many towns in Germany, and it is stated that itinerant carpet makers travel from place to place teaching the art of carpet knitting for a small remuneration.

Kidderminster Carpets in England are but another name for our two-ply or three-ply ingrains. In Scotland they are called Scotch carpets.

Venetian Carpets are of the simplest kinds, the texture of which is plain; a striped woolen warp on a thick woof of thread, made of hemp, cotton or woolen, and the warp is so thick as to cover entirely the woof. It is not known that what is called Venetian carpeting was ever made at Venice, Italy.

Hemp Carpets, made entirely of hemp, were first imported from Russia, but are now made in this country in considerable quantities. They are extremely cheap and durable, but are used chiefly in offices, passages, and places where a cheap carpet is required to deaden sound. An excellent floor covering for offices and business rooms is also made of cocoa fiber. It is woven open to let the dust pass through, and is extremely durable and cheap.

Paper Carpet is a variety made of a hard and tenacious paper called hession, which is produced by subjecting the paper pulp to the action of chloride of zinc and then to strong pressure, by means of which the product is rendered hard and tough like leather. It is finished both plain and in imitation of ornamental woods.

Fraternity Carpets are made in ingrain, especially for the use of lodges and secret societies. They are splendidly worked out and colored with designs and emblems peculiarly appropriate to the order for which they are intended.

Dutch Carpet is a very strong and cheap wool ingrain carpet, usually woven in stripes and checks.

Rag Carpets were first invented and woven during the early part of the present century by the economical settlers of New England. Until about 1874 no large factories for the weaving of rag carpets existed in the United States, the industry being carried on solely by families residing in rural communities. It is, however, fast becoming one of the lost arts, such as the making of flexible glass and the manufacture of Tyrian purple, being slowly but surely driven out by the superior appearance and low price of ingrains. While it is always possible to get the inferior factory-made article, yet that is not the sort that is associated with an old-fashioned room, with its high-post bedstead, whitewashed walls and diamond-paned windows. In those days the rags were cut and sewed by the log fire in the long winter evenings, and often the carpet was woven on the old wooden loom in the up-garret. For every three yards of carpet woven, required one and a quarter pounds of cotton carpet chain. If the weaving was hired the charge was 23 cents per yard, the weaver providing the warp, and an average days' work was about sixteen yards. List carpet is very similar to rag carpet, being made of the list or selvedges of woolen cloths obtained from tailor shops or clothing factories. It is made at all the regular carpet factories, a full yard wide and 130 yards to the roll.

Persian or Oriental carpets are similar in their weaving to the Gobelin tapestry manufactured in France. This tapestry, as is well known, consists of tufts of wool (Fr. moquetts) or silk sewed on the strings of the warp by means of small shuttle needles. The Persian carpet is formed by knotting into the warp tuft after tuft of woolen yarn, over each row of which a weft shot is passed, the particular pattern being produced by different colored threads, hand wrought upon the warp. In Persia there are entire tribes and families whose only occupation is carpet and rug weaving. These dispose of their productions to the native merchants, who ship them either to Smyrna or Constantinople, where they meet with English or American purchasers. Persia has always been particularly rich in the various products of the loom. Carpets, now so extensively made and used in all civilized countries, had their origin in Persia, which still produces perhaps the most beautiful specimens in the world. Their durability may be imagined from the fact that the floor of one of the largest palaces at Ispahan is still covered with a fine carpet made in 1582. The Persian habit of sitting and sleeping on the ground probably lead to the manufacture of fabrics specially designed to meet the requirements of such a custom, and the carpets which thus had their origin in the common necessities of ordinary life afterwards found their way as luxuries to other countries. The finest Persian carpets are now made at Kurdustan The pattern does not represent a flower bouquet or other 5 objects thrown up in relief from a uniform ground like most of our designs, but looks more like a layer of flowers strewn on the ground. A real Kurdustan carpet is worth $20 a square yard. All carpets in Persia are made by hand with the aid of the simplest machinery, the loom being simplv a frame upon which the warp is stretched. The wool consists of short threads of yarn woven and knotted into the warp with nothing else but the naked fingers. The long beautiful pile is formed by merely clipping the ends of the wool until an even surface is obtained. Not being "manufactured" in the proper sense of the word, the Persian is incapable of repeating over and over the same pattern. Each carpet is different in design from the one preceding it. This sort of weaving allows the maker to follow the bent of her lively imagination, always accompanied by a sense of what is beautiful; she does not mind small irregularities in details, if the general design of the carpet has a pleasing and artistic effect. These carpets are now what they always were in manufacture, and probably, in the majority of instances, in design also —abounding with strangely fantastic forms, luxuriantly and harmoniously colored, and manufactured of materials second in durability only to the floor of which they form the cover.

The Persian carpet is rarely large, and are mostly made by the women and children in the villages. The colors formerly used by the Persian weavers were imperishable. Carpets a hundred years old show no want of freshness of color, but rather soft tones like ancient oil paintings. The use of aniline color is strictly prohibited. A recent traveler in Asiatic Turkey gives a concise description of how Oriental carpets are woven in that country: "A loom primitively constructed of trunks of trees, as nature made them, is inclined against a wall; a trunk so arranged that it can be turned round holds the threads of coarse wool, and a second supports the completed work. Balls of colored wool hang from a string, from which the women (the men do not work at the looms) take detached threads to form knots, each of which ties two threads of warp. After making a series of knots and consolidating them by means of a comb, they insert from right to left one or two threads of wool, and then pass on to the next series. The tufts which result from this work are combed and leveled with scissors. The patterns are worked from old models, which have decended in the family, or from designs received with orders from Smyrna, though of late years not a few orders have come direct from European and American agents."

From a strictly artistic point of view, carpets should be darker in tone and more broken in hue than any portion of the room, both because they present the largest mass of color and because they serve as a back ground to the furniture placed upon them. As a general rule, lighter carpets may be used in rooms thinly furnished than to the contrary, as we should otherwise have too overpowering a mass of shade. The pattern should always be proportioned to the size of the room, as a small figured carpet in a large room makes the floor space appear larger than a large figure would, and vice versa.

"Sprouting" of carpets is a peculiar disease to which only Tapestry and Brussels are liable, consisting of the bobbing up of loops above the surface of the carpet. The trouble is especially liable to occur in first-class goods, in which the yarn is fine, soft and highly dressed. A rough table-castor or the jagged nail in a shoe has caused many a case of sprouting. There is but one remedy, and that is to clip off the loose ends with a pair of sharp scissors. By careful, close clipping the threads by degrees get flattened down and the trouble ceases. If this is not done at once these loose ends are liable to be caught again and again by the feet of the passers by, and the first injury made greater by the loops being dragged out further. The worst enemy of these two varieties of carpets is the common broom in the hands of a maid more muscular than intelligent. If possible, a new Brussels or Tapestry carpet should be exempted from sweeping for the first month; that is, until the loops get trodden down somewhat. If sweeping is regarded as absolutely necessary, the only proper thing to use is a good carpet sweeper run over the surface with the utmost possible care. In every case of complaint from a customer, the retail dealer should be especially careful to place the matter in the hands of an experienced clerk, whose special business it should be not only to see to the remedy, but also to ascertain the cause of the trouble. Sprouting is not a fault or defect of the carpet, but a natural and unavoidable feature of the fabric, which the manufacturer can do nothing to prevent, neither can he have done anything to produce it.

The following table shows at a glance how to cut economically and to the best advantage carpets with patterns ranging from 13 to 30 inches, so that they will match when made up. The table is thoroughly reliable, and will be found very valuable in saving time and waste, both to the salesman and carpet-sewer:

   

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in.

ft.

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ft.

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in.

ft.

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13 inch pattern cuts at..

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

11

11

13

0

14

1

15

2

14 "

"

8

2

9

4

10

6

11

8

12

10

14

0

15

2

16

4

15 "

"

10

0

11

3

12

6

13

9

15

0

16

3

17

6

18

0

16 "

"

9

4

10

8

12

0

13

4

14

8

16

0

17

4

18

8

17 "

"

9

11

11

4

12

9

14

2

15

7

17

0

18

5

19

10

18 "

"

9

0

10

6

12

0

13

6

15

0

16

0

18

0

19

6

19 "

"

9

6

11

1

12

8

11

3

15

10

17

5

19

0

20

7

20 "

"

10

0

11

8

13

4

15

0

16

8

18

4

20

0

   

21 "

"

10

6

12

3

14

0

15

9

17

6

19

3

21

0

   

22 '

"

11

0

12

10

14

8

16

6

18

4

20

2

22

0

   

23 *

"

11

6

13

5

15

4

17

3

19

2

21

1

23

0

   

24 "

"

10

0

12

0

14

0

16

0

18

0

20

0

22

0

24

0

25 "

"

10

5

12

6

14

7

16

8

)8

9

20

10

22

11

25

0

26 "

"

10

10

13

0

15

2

17

4

19

6

21

8

23

10

26

0

27 "

"

11

3

13

6

15

9

18

0

20

3

22

6

24

9

27

0

28 "

"

11

8

14

0

16

4

18

8

21

0

23

4

25

8

28

0

29 "

"

12

1

14

6

16

11

19

4

21

9

24

2

26

7

29

0

30 "

"

10

0

12

6

15

0

17

6

20

0

22

6

25

0

27

6

In making calculations do not figure too close, as some carpets stretch or shrink a little, or a new piece of the same pattern may occasionally be made half an inch smaller or larger by the manufacturer.