The cornemuse of shepherds and rustic swains became the fashionable instrument, but as inflating the bag by the breath distorted the performer's face, the bellows were substituted, and the whole instrument was refined in appearance and tone-quality to fit it for its more exalted position. The Hotteterre family and that of Chédeville were past masters of the art of making the musette and of playing upon it; they counted among their pupils the highest and noblest in the land. The cult of the musette continued throughout the 17th and 18th centuries until the 'seventies, when its popularity was on the wane and musettes figured largely in sales.[40] Lully introduced the musette into his operas, and in 1758 the list of instruments forming the orchestra at the Opéra includes one musette.[41] Illustrations of bag-pipes are found in the miniatures of the following MSS. in the British Museum. - 2 B. VII. f. 192 and 197; Add. MS. 34,294 (the Sforza Book), f. 62, vol. i.; Burney, 275, f. 715; Add. MS. 17,280, f. 238b; Add. MS. 24,686 (Tennyson Psalter), f. 17b; Add. MS. 17,280, f. 82b; Add. MS. 24,681, f.44; Add. MS. 32,454; Add. MS. 11,867, f38; etc. etc.

(K. S.)

[1] See E. G. Graff, Deutsche Interlinearversionen der Psalmen (from a 12th-cent. Windberg MS. at Munich), p. 384, Ps. lxxx. 2. "nemet den Sulmen unde gebet den Suegdbalch."

[2] These harmonics may be obtained by good performers by what is known as "pinching" or only partially covering the B and C holes and increasing the wind pressure.

[3] The notes marked with asterisks are approximately a quarter of a tone sharp.

[4] "Complete Tutor for attaining a thorough knowledge of the pipe music," prefixed to A Collection of the Ancient Martial Music of Caledonia called Piobaireachd, as performed on the Great Highland Bag-pipe, Edinburgh, c. 1805.

[5] Paper on "The Musical Scales of Various Nations," by Alex. J. Ellis, F.R.S., Jrnl. Soc. Arts, 1885, vol. xxxiii. p. 499.

[6] Tutor for the Highland Bag-pipe, by David Glen (Edinburgh, 1899).

[7] Tutor for the Highland Bag-pipe, by Angus Mackay (Edinburgh, 1839).

[8] A Collection of Ancient Piobaireachd or Highland Pipe Music by Angus Mackay (Edinburgh, 1839), p. 128.

[9] A Collection of Piobaireachd or Pipe Tunes as verbally taught by the McCrummen Pipers on the Isle of Skye to their apprentices, as taken from John McCrummen (or Crimmon) by Niel MacLeod of Gesto, Skye (Edinburgh, 1880).

[10] Albyn's Anthology, vol. i. p. 90.

[11] Descriptive Catalogue of the Musical Instruments exhibited at the Royal Military Exhibition, London, 1890, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1891, pl. ix. A, and description p. 57.

[12] Ancient Laws of Ireland, Brehon Law Tracts, published by the Commissioners for publishing the Ancient Laws and Institutions of Ireland (Dublin, 1879), vol. iv. pp. 338 and 339.

[13] John Derrick, Image of Ireland and Discoverie of Woodkarne (London, 1581), pl. ii.

[14] L'Harmonie universelle, vol. ii. bk. v. pp. 282-287 and 305 (Paris, 1636-1637).

[15] Syntagma Musicum, part ii., De Organographia (Wolfenbüttel, 1618); republished in Band xiii. of the Publicationen der Gesellschaft für Musikforschung (Berlin, 1884), chap. xix. and pl. v., xi., xiii.

[16] See E. Thoinan, Les Hotteterre et les Chèdeville, célèbres facteurs de flûtes, hautbois, bassons et musettes (Paris, 1894), p. 23. It is probable, however, that M. Thoinan, who makes this statement, has not considered the possibility of the word musette applying in this case to the small rustic hautbois or dessus de bombarde, also written muse, muset, musele, which occurs in many ballads of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. See Fr. Godefroy, Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française du IXe au XVe siècle (Paris, 1888).

[17] Musettes de Poitou; probably the cornemuses used in concert with the Hautbois de Poitou.

[18] Op. cit. vol. ii. bk. v. pp. 287-292.

[19] See Ernest Thoinan, op. cit. pp. 15 et seq. (cf. Jules Ecorcheville, "Quelques documents sur la musique de la Grande écurie du Roi" in Intern. Mus. Ges., Sammelband ii. 4, p. 625 and table 2, "Grands Hautbois").

[20] Méthode pour la musette, etc., by Hotteterre le Romain (Paris, 1737), 4to, chap. xvi.

[21] Traité de la musette avec une nouvelle méthode, etc. (Lyons, 1672), pp. 25-27 and plate. A copy of this work is in the British Museum.

[22] Op. cit. bk. v. p. 293.

[23] Illustrated and described by Capt. C. R. Day, Descriptive Catalogue, pl. ix. fig. C, p. 62.

[24] L'Egypte au temps des Pharaons - la vie, la science et l'art; avec Photogravures, etc. (Paris, 1889) 12mo, p. 139.

[25] See Délégation en Perse, by J. de Morgan (Paris, 1900), vol. i. pl. viii., Nos. 10 and 14.

[26] Dion Chrysostom, ed. Adolphus Emperius (Brunswick, 1844), p. 728 or lxxi. (R) 381. See Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, s.v. "Askaules."

[27] 54, B. Jowett's Eng. translation (Oxford, 1892).

[28] A suggestion the writer owes to Mr G. Barwick of the British Museum.

[29] See "Researches into the Origin of the Organs of the Ancients," by Kathleen Schlesinger, Sammelband ii. Intern. Musik. Ges. vol. ii, 1901, pp. 188-202.

[30] Suetonius, Nero, 54 (S. Clarke's translation and text).

[31] Archaeologia, vol. xvii. pp. 176-179 (London, 1814).

[32] Inscriptiones antiquae totius orbis romani (Heidelberg, 1602-1603).

[33] Miscell. erudit. antiquitatis.

[34] Munimenta antiqua, vol. ii. (London, 1799), p. 22, pl. xx. fig. 3.

[35] See Montfaucon, Suppl. de l'antiq. expliquée, vol. iii. pl. lxxiii., Nos. 1 and 2, and explanation p. 189; Francesco Bianchini. de tribus generibus instr. mus. veterum, Romae, 1742, pl. ii., Nos. 12 and 13, and p. 11; Suetonius, Vitae Neronis, ed. Charles Patin, cap. 41, p. 304, where the contorniate in question, whose musical instrument differs essentially from Bianchini's and Montfaucon's, is figured.

[36] See Catalogue of the Exhibition of Illuminated MSS. at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908, No. 31.

[37] Notes of Early Spanish Music (London, 1887), pp. 120 and 121.

[38] Idumentario Española (Madrid, 1880).

[39] Die musikalischen Instrumente in den Miniaturen des frühen Mittelalters, p. 50 (Leipzig, 1903).

[40] An interesting pamphlet by Eugène de Bricqueville, Les Musettes (Paris, 1894), p. 36, with illustrations.

[41] See Antoine Vidal, Les Instruments à archet (Paris, 1871), vol. i. p. 81, note 1.