[4] For the events leading up to the conquests of Cyrus, see Persia: Ancient History, § v. The chronology is not absolutely certain.

[5] The following is a list of the later dynasties and kings of Babylonia and Assyria so far as they are known at present. For the views of other writers on the chronology, see § viii., Chronological Systems.

The Babylonian Dynasties from cir. 2500 B.C.

Dynasty of Ur.

Gungunu, cir. 2500 B.C.

Ur-Gur.

Dungi, more than 51 years.

Bur-Sin, more than 12 years.

Gimil-Sin, more than 9 years.

Ibi-Sin.

Idin-Dagan.

Sumu-ilu.

First Dynasty of Babylon. 2350 B.C.

Sumu-abi, 14 years.

Sumu-la-ilu, 36 years.

Zabium, 14 years.

Abil-Sin, 18 years.

Sin-muballidh, 20 years.

Khammurabi, 43 years.

Samsu-iluna, 38 years.

Abesukh, 25 years.

Ammi-ditana, 25 years.

Ammi-zadoq, 21 years.

Samsu-ditana, 31 years.

Dynasty of Sisku (?) for 368 years. 2160 B.C.

Anman, 60 years.

Ki-Nigas, 56 years.

Damki-ilisu, 26 years.

Iskipal, 15 years.

Sussi, 27 years.

Gul-ki[sar], 55 years.

Kirgal-daramas, 50 years.

Ā-dara-kalama, 28 years.

Akur-duana, 26 years.

Melamma-kurkura, 8 years.

Ea-ga(mil), 9 years.

Kassite Dynasty of 36 kings for 576 years 9 months. 1780 B.C.

Gandis, 16 years.

Agum-sipak, 22 years.

Bitilyasu I., 22 years.

Ussi (?), 9 years.

Adu-metas.

Tazzi-gurumas.

Agum-kakrime.

. . . .

Kara-indas.

Kadasman-Bel, his son, corresponded with

Amon-hotep (Amenophis) III. of Egypt, 1400 B.C.

Kuri-galzu II.

Burna-buryas, his son, 22 years.

Kuri-galzu III., his son, 26 years.

Nazi-Maruttas, his son, 17 years.

Kadasman-Turgu, his son, 13 years.

Kudur-bel, 6 years.

Sagarakti-suryas, his son, 13 years.

Bitilyasu II., 8 years.

Tukulti-In-aristi of Assyria (1272 B.C.)

for 7 years, native vassal kings being -

Bel-sum-iddin, 1½ years.

Kadasman-Bel II., 1½ years.

Hadad-sum-iddin, 6 years.

Hadad-sum-uzur, 30 years.

Meli-sipak, 15 years.

Merodach-baladan I., his son, 13 years.

Zamama-sum-iddin, 1 year.

Bel-sum-iddin, 3 years.

Dynasty of Isin of 11 kings for 132½ years. 1203 B.C.

Merodach-... 18 years.

. . . .

Nebuchadrezzar I.

Bel-nadin-pal.

Merodach-nadin-akhi, 22 years.

Merodach-... 1½ years.

Hadad-baladan, an usurper.

Merodach-sapik-zer-mati, 12 years.

Nabu-nadin, 8 years.

Dynasty of the Sea-coast. 1070 B.C.

Simbar-sipak, 18 years.

Ea-mukin-zeri, 5 months.

Kassu-nadin-akhi, 3 years.

Dynasty of Bit-Bazi. 1050 B.C.

Ē-Ulmas-sakin-sumi, 17 years.

Ninip-kudur-uzur I., 3 years.

Silanim-Suqamuna, 3 months.

Dynasty of Elam. 1030 B.C.

An Elamite, 6 years.

Second Dynasty of Babylon. 1025 B.C.

Nebo-kin-abli, 36 years.

Ninip-kudur-uzur II. (?) 8 months 12 days.

Probably 5 names missing.

B.C.

Samas-mudammiq

cir. 920

Nebo-sum-iskun

cir. 900

Nebo-baladan

cir. 880

Merodach-nadin-sumi

cir. 860

Merodach-baladhsu-iqbi

cir. 830

Bau-akhi-iddin

cir. 810

Probably 2 names missing.

Nebo-sum-iskun, son of Dakuri

cir. 760

Nabonassar, 14 years

747

Nebo-nadin-suma, his son, 2 years

733

Nebo-sum-yukin, his son, 1 month 12 days

731

End of "the 22nd dynasty."

Dynasty of Sape.

B.C.

Yukin-zera or Chinziros, 3 years.

730

Pulu (Pul or Poros), called

Tiglath-pileser III. in Assyria, 2 years

727

Ululā, called Shalmaneser IV. in Assyria

725

Merodach-baladan II. the Chaldaean

721

Sargon of Assyria

709

Sennacherib, his son

705

Merodach-zakir-sumi, 1 month

702

Merodach-baladan III., 6 months

702

Bel-ebus of Babylon

702

Assur-nadin-sumi, son of Sennacherib

700

Nergal-yusezib

694

Musezib-Merodach

693

Sennacherib destroys Babylon

689

Esar-haddon, his son

681

Samas-sum-yukin, his son

668

Kandalanu (Kineladanos)

648

Nabopolassar

626

Nabu-kudur-uzur (Nebuchadrezzar II.)

605

Amil-Marduk (Evil-Merodach), his son

562

Nergal-sarra-uzur (Nergal-sharezer)

560

Labasi-Marduk, his son, 3 months

556

Nabu-nahid (Nabonidus)

556

Cyrus conquers Babylon

538

Cambyses, his son

529

Gomates, the Magian, 7 months

521

Nebuchadrezzar III., native king

521

Darius, son of Hystaspes

520

Nebuchadrezzar IV., rebel king

514

Darius restored

513

Kings of Assyria.

Zulilu "founder of the monarchy."

. . . .

Assur-rabi.

Assur-nirari, his son.

Assur-rim-nisesu, his son.

. . . .

Erba-Hadad,

Assur-nadin-akhi I., his son.

Assur-yuballidh I., his son.

B.C.

Assur-bil-nisi-su

cir. 1450

Buzur-Assur

1440

Assur-nadin-akhi II.

1410

Assur-yuballidh, his son

1390

Bel-nirari, his son

1370

Arik-den-ilu, his son

1350

Hadad-nirari I., his son

1330

Shalmaneser I., his son (built Calah)

1310

Tiglath-In-aristi I., his son,

1280

conquers Babylon

cir. 1270

Assur-nazir-pal I., his son

1260

Assur-narara and his son Nebo-dan

1250

Assur-sum-lisir

1235

In-aristi-tukulti-Assur

1225

Bel-kudur-uzur

1215

In-aristi-pileser, descendant of Erba-Hadad

1200

Assur-dan I., his son

1185

Mutaggil-Nebo, his son

1160

Assur-ris-isi, his son

1140

Tiglath-pileser I., his son

1120

Assur-bil-kala, his son

1090

Samsi-Hadad I., his brother

1070

Assur-nazir-pal II., his son

1060

Assur-irbi

-

Hadad-nirari II.

cir. 960

Tiglath-pileser II., his son

950

Assur-dan II., his son

930

Hadad-nirari III., his son

911

Tukulti-In-aristi, his son

889

Assur-nazir-pal III., his son

883

Shalmaneser II., his son

858

Assur-danin-pal (Sardanapallos), rebel king

825

Samsi-Hadad II., his brother

823

Hadad-nirari IV., his son

810

Shalmaneser III.

781

Assur-dan III.

771

Assur-nirari

753

Pulu, usurper, takes the name of Tiglath-pileser III.

745

Ululā, usurper, takes the name of Shalmaneser IV.

727

Sargon, usurper

722

Sennacherib, his son

705

Esar-haddon, his son

681

Assur-bani-pal, his son

668

Assur-etil-ilani-yukin, his son

?

Assur-sum-lisir

?

Sin-sarra-uzur (Sarakos)

?

Destruction of Nineveh

606

[6] These three dynasties are usually known as the First Dynasty of Babylon, the Dynasty of Sisku or Uruku, and the Kassite Dynasty; see sect. v.

[7] See Oppert, Comptes rendus de l'Acad. des Inscr. et Belles-Lettres (1888), xvi. pp. 218 ff., and Bab. and Or. Rec. ii. pp. 107 ff.

[8] See Sayce, Early Israel, pp. 281 ff., and Encyc. Brit., 10th ed., vol. xxvi. p. 45 (also his account above).

[9] See Rogers History of Babylonia and Assyria (1900).

[10] See Winckler, Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens (1892), Altorientalische Forschungen, i. Hft. 2 (1894), and Auszug aus der Vorderasiatischen Geschichte (1905).

[11] See Delitzsch and Mürdter, Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens (1891), and Delitzsch, Mehr Licht (1907).

[12] See Maspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'Orient classique, tome ii.

[13] See Peiser, Zeits. für Assyr. vi. pp. 264 ff.

[14] See Rost, Mitteil. der vorderas. Gesellschaft (1897), ii.

[15] See Lehmann-Haupt, Zwei Hauptprobleme (1898).

[16] See Marquart, Philologus, Supplbd. vii. (1899), pp. 637 ff.

[17] See Rost, Orient. Lit.-Zeit., iii. (1900), No. 6.

[18] See Lehmann-Haupt, Beiträge zur alten Geschichte (Klio), Bd. iii. Heft 1 (1903).

[19] See Hommel, Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens.

[20] See Ancient Hebrew Tradition, p. 125, and Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, i. pp. 226 f.

[21] See Niebuhr, Chronologie (1896).

[22] See Hommel, "Sitzungsberichte der königl. böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften," Phil.-hist. Classe (1901), v.

[23] Published and discussed by L. W. King, "Chronicles concerning early Babylonian Kings" (Studies in Eastern History, vols. ii. and iii., 1907), and History of Egypt, vol. xiii. (published by the Grolier Society, New York, in the spring of 1906), pp. 244 ff.

[24] Published and discussed by Hilprecht, "Mathematical, Metrological and Chronological Texts" (Bab. Exped., Ser. A, xx. 1, dated 1906, published 1907), pp. 46 ff.

[25] See L. W. King, Letters and Inscriptions of Khammurabi, vol. iii. pp. 228 ff.

[26] Cf., e.g., Hilprecht, Old Babylonian Inscriptions, pt. ii. p. 24.

[27] See Radau, Early Babylonian History (1900).

[28] See Lehmann-Haupt, Zwei Hauptprobleme, pp. 172 ff.

[29] See Winckler in Schrader's Keilinschriften und das Alte-Testament (3rd ed.), i. pp. 17 f., and cf. Mitteil. der vorderas. Gesellschaft (1906), i. p. 12, n.l.

[30] Cf. L. W. King, Chronicles, i. pp. 15 ff., 61 f.

[31] See Mitteilungen der deutschen Orientgesellschaft, Nos. 21 and 22, and cf. L. W. King, Chronicles, i. pp. 114 ff.

[32] The Assyrian language is practically identical with the Babylonian, just as the Assyrians are the same people as the Babylonians with some foreign admixtures.

[33] In many names the divine element is lopped off, but was originally present.

[34] Aramaic endorsements on business documents repeating in Aramaic transliteration the names of parties mentioned in the texts have also been of service in fixing the phonetic readings of names. See e.g. Clay's valuable article, "Aramaic Endorsements on the Documents of Murashū Sons" (Persian period) in Old Testament and Semitic Studies in Memory of William Rainey Harper (Chicago, 1908, vol. i.), pp. 285-322.

[35] Even in the case of the "Semitic" name of the famous Sargon I. (q.v.), whose full name is generally read Sharru-kenu-sha-ali, and interpreted as "the legitimate king of the city," the question has recently been raised whether we ought not to read "Sharru-kenu-shar-ri" and interpret as "the legitimate king rules" - an illustration of the vacillation still prevailing in this difficult domain of research.