Parasitenk. (Jena); also Index Medicus. The most important works on immunity are: Ehrlich, Studies in Immunity (English translation, New York, 1906), and Metchnikoff, Immunity in Infective Diseases (English translation, Cambridge, 1905).
 Gr. βακτήριον, Lat. bacillus, little rod or stick.
 Cladothrix dichotoma, for example, which is ordinarily a branched, filamentous, sheathed form, at certain seasons breaks up into a number of separate cells which develop a tuft of cilia and escape from the sheath. Such a behaviour is very similar to the production of zoospores which is so common in many filamentous algae.
 Brefeld has observed that a bacterium may divide once every half-hour, and its progeny repeat the process in the same time. One bacterium might thus produce in twenty-four hours a number of segments amounting to many millions of millions.
 The difficulties presented by such minute and simple organisms as the Schizomycetes are due partly to the few "characters" which they possess and partly to the dangers of error in manipulating them; it is anything but an easy matter either to trace the whole development of a single form or to recognize with certainty any one stage in the development unless the others are known. This being the case, and having regard to the minuteness and ubiquity of these organisms, we should be very careful in accepting evidence as to the continuity or otherwise of any two forms which falls short of direct and uninterrupted observation. The outcome of all these considerations is that, while recognizing that the "genera" and "species" as defined by Cohn must be recast, we are not warranted in uniting any forms the continuity of which has not been directly observed; or, at any rate, the strictest rules should be followed in accepting the evidence adduced to render the union of any forms probable.