If the bricks were turned so as to show their short sides or ends in front instead of their long ones, certainly a compact wall of a whole brick thick, instead of half a brick, would be produced, and while the thickness of the wall would be double, the longitudinal bond would be shortened by one-half: a wall of any great thickness built in this manner would necessarily be composed of so many independent one-brick walls. To produce a transverse and yet preserve a true longitudinal bond, the bricks are laid in a definite arrangement of stretchers and headers.

Fig. 5.  English Bond. Fig. 5. - English Bond.

In this and following illustration of bond in brickwork the position of bricks in the second course is indicated by dotted lines.

In "English bond" (fig. 5), rightly considered the most perfect in use, the bricks are laid in alternate courses of headers and stretchers, thus combining the advantages of the two previous modes of arrangement. A reference to fig. 5 will show how the process of bonding is pursued in a wall one and a half bricks in thickness, and how the quoins are formed. In walls which are a multiple of a whole brick, the appearance of the same course is similar on the elevations of the front and back faces, but in walls where an odd half brick must be used to make up the thickness, as is the case in the illustration, the appearance of the opposite sides of a course is inverted. The example illustrates the principle of English bond; thicker walls are constructed in the same manner by an extension of the same methods. It will be observed that portions of a brick have to be inserted near a vertical end or a quoin, in order to start the regular bond. These portions equal a half header in width, and are called queen closers; they are placed next to the first header. A three-quarter brick is obviously as available for this purpose as a header and closer combined, but the latter method is preferred because by the use of it uniformity of appearance is preserved, and whole bricks are retained on the returns.

King closers are used at rebated openings formed in walls in Flemish bond, and by reason of the greater width of the back or "tail," add strength to the work. They are cut on the splay so that the front end is half the width of a header and one side half the length of the brick. An example of their use will be seen in fig. 15. In walls of almost all thicknesses above 9 in., except in the English bond, to preserve the transverse and yet not destroy the longitudinal bond, it is frequently necessary to use half bricks. It may be taken as a general rule that a brick should never be cut if it can be worked in whole, for a new joint is thereby created in a construction, the difficulty of which consists in obviating the debility arising from the constant recurrence of joints. Great insistence must be laid on this point, especially at the junctions of walls, where the admission of closers already constitutes a weakness which would only be increased by the use of other bats or fragments of bricks.

Fig. 6.  Flemish Bond. Fig. 6. - Flemish Bond.

Another method of bonding brickwork, instead of placing the bricks in alternate courses of headers and stretchers, places them alternately as headers and stretchers in the same course, the appearance of the course being the same on each face. This is called "Flemish bond." Closers are necessary to this variety of bond. From fig. 6 it will be seen that, owing to the comparative weakness of the transverse tie, and the numbers of half bricks required to be used and the thereby increased number of joints, this bond is not so perfect nor so strong as English. The arrangements of the face joints, however, presenting in Flemish bond a neater appearance than in English bond, it is generally selected for the external walls of domestic and other buildings where good effect is desirable. In buildings erected for manufacturing and similar purposes, and in engineering works where the greatest degree of strength and compactness is considered of the highest importance, English bond should have the preference.

A compromise is sometimes made between the two above-mentioned bonds. For the sake of appearance the bricks are laid to form Flemish bond on the face, while the backing is of English bond, the object being to combine the best features of the two bonds. Undoubtedly the result is an improvement on Flemish bond, obviating as it does the use of bats in the interior of the wall. This method of bonding is termed "single Flemish bond," and is shown in fig. 7.

In stretching bond, which should only be used for walls half a brick in thickness, all the bricks are laid as stretchers, a half brick being used in alternate courses to start the bond. In work curved too sharply on plan to admit of the use of stretchers, and for footings, projecting mouldings and corbels, the bricks are all laid as headers, i.e. with their ends to the front, and their length across the thickness of the wall. This is termed "heading bond."

Fig. 7.  Single Flemish Bond. Fig. 7. - Single Flemish Bond.

In thick walls, three bricks thick and upwards, a saving of labour is effected without loss of strength, by the adoption of "herring bone" or "diagonal bond" in the interior of the wall, the outer faces of the wall being built in English and Flemish bond. This mode should not be had recourse to for walls of a less thickness than 27 in., even that being almost too thin to admit of any great advantage from it.

Hoop-iron, about 1½ in. wide and 1/16 in. thick, either galvanized or well tarred and sanded to retard rusting, is used in order to obtain additional longitudinal tie. The customary practice is to use one strip of iron for each half-brick in thickness of the wall. Joints at the angles, and where necessary in the length, are formed by bending the ends of the strips so as to hook together. A patent stabbed iron now on the market is perforated to provide a key for the mortar.