Grout is thin liquid mortar, and is legitimately used in gauged arches and other work when fine joints are desired. In ordinary work it is sometimes used every four or five courses to fill up any spaces that may have been inadvertently left between the bricks. This at the best is but doing with grout what should be done with mortar in the operation of laying the bricks; and filling or flushing up every course with mortar requires but little additional exertion and is far preferable. The use of grout is, therefore, a sign of inefficient workmanship, and should not be countenanced in good work. It is liable, moreover, to ooze out and stain the face of the brickwork.

Lime putty is pure slaked lime. It is prepared or "run," as it is termed, in a wooden tub or bin, and should be made as long a time as possible before being used; at least three weeks should elapse between preparation and use.

Fig. 3.  Forms of Joints. Fig. 3. - Forms of Joints.

The pointing of a wall, as previously mentioned, is done either with the bricklaying or at the completion of the work. If the Pointing. pointing is to be of the same mortar as the rest of the work, it would probably greatly facilitate matters to finish off the work at one operation with the bricklaying, but where, as in many cases, the pointing is required to be executed in a more durable mortar, this would be done as the scaffold is taken down at the completion of the building, the joints being raked out by the bricklayer to a depth of ½ or ¾ in. By the latter method the whole face of the work is kept uniform in appearance. The different forms of joints in general use are clearly shown in fig. 3. Flat or flush joints (A) are formed by pressing the protruding mortar back flush with the face of the brickwork. This joint is commonly used for walls intended to be coated with distemper or limewhite. The flat joint jointed (two forms, B and C) is a development of the flush joint. In order to increase the density and thereby enhance the durability of the mortar, a semicircular groove is formed along the centre, or one on each side of the joint, with an iron jointer and straight-edge. Another form, rarely used, is the keyed joint shown at D, the whole width of the joint in this case being treated with the curved key.

Struck or bevelled, or weathered, joints have the upper portion pressed back with the trowel to form a sloping surface, which throws off the wet. The lower edge is cut off with the trowel to a straight edge. This joint is in very common use for new work. Ignorant workmen frequently make the slope in the opposite direction (F), thus forming a ledge on the brick; this catches the water, which on being frozen rapidly causes the disintegration of the upper portion of the brick and of the joint itself. With recessed jointing, not much used, a deep shadow may be obtained. This form of joint, illustrated in G, is open to very serious objections, for it encourages the soaking of the brick with rain instead of throwing off the wet, as it seems the natural function of good pointing, and this, besides causing undue dampness in the wall, renders it liable to damage by frost. It also leaves the arrises of the bricks unprotected and liable to be damaged, and from its deep recessed form does not make for stability in the work. Gauged work has very thin joints, as shown at H, formed by dipping the side of the brick in white lime putty. The sketch I shows a joint raked out and filled in with pointing mortar to form a flush joint, or it may be finished in any of the preceding forms.

Where the wall is to be plastered the joints are either left open or raked out, or the superfluous mortar may be left protruding as shown at J. By either method an excellent key is obtained, to which the rendering firmly adheres. In tuck pointing (K) the joints are raked out and stopped, i.e. filled in flush with mortar coloured to match the brickwork. The face of the wall is then rubbed over with a soft brick of the same colour, or the work may be coloured with pigment. A narrow groove is then cut in the joints, and the mortar allowed to set. White lime putty is next filled into the groove, being pressed on with a jointing tool, leaving a white joint ⅛ to ¼ in. wide, and with a projection of about 1/16 in. beyond the face of the work. This method is not a good or a durable one, and should only be adopted in old work when the edges of the bricks are broken or irregular. In bastard tuck pointing (L), the ridge, instead of being in white lime putty, is formed of the stopping mortar itself.

Footings, as will be seen on reference to fig. 1, are the wide courses of brickwork at the base or foot of a wall. They serve to spread Footings. the pressure over a larger area of ground, offsets 2¼ in. wide being made on each side of the wall until a width equal to double the thickness of the wall is reached. Thus in a wall 13½ in. (1½ bricks) thick, this bottom course would be 2 ft. 3 in. (3 bricks) wide. It is preferable for greater strength to double the lowest course. The foundation bed of concrete then spreading out an additional 6 in. on each side brings the width of the surface bearing on the ground to 3 ft. 3 in. The London Building Act requires the projection of concrete on each side of the brickwork to be only 4 in., but a projection of 6 in. is generally made to allow for easy working. Footings should be built with hard bricks laid principally as headers; stretchers, if necessary, should be placed in the middle of the wall.

Fig. 4.  Diagram of Bonding. Fig. 4. - Diagram of Bonding.

Bond in brickwork is the arrangement by which the bricks of every course cover the joints of those in the course below it, and so Bonding. tend to make the whole mass or combination of bricks act as much together, or as dependently one upon another, as possible. The workmen should be strictly supervised as they proceed with the work, for many failures are due to their ignorance or carelessness in this particular. The object of bonding will be understood by reference to fig. 4. Here it is evident from the arrangement of the bricks that any weight placed on the topmost brick (a) is carried down and borne alike in every course; in this way the weight on each brick is distributed over an area increasing with every course. But this forms a longitudinal bond only, which cannot extend its influence beyond the width of the brick; and a wall of one brick and a half, or two bricks, thick, built in this manner, would in effect consist of three or four half brick thick walls acting independently of each other.