When the drawings have been approved by the owner or client, also by the district surveyor or local authorities, and by adjoining owners, one copy of them, made on linen, is usually deposited (in London) either with the district surveyor, or with the London County Council, another is prepared for the freeholder if a lease of the land is granted, and a third is given to the builder. In addition, in complicated cases such as occur in the city of London, when a building is erected on land which has four or five distinct owners, an architect may have to prepare a large number of complete copies to be deposited with the various parties interested.

The duties of the builder are very similar to those of the architect, except that he is not expected to be able to plan The builder's sphere. and design, but to carry out the plans and designs of the architect in the actual work of building. The builder should also know the various acts, and in particular the acts specially relating to the erection of scaffoldings, hoardings, gantries, shoring and pulling down of old buildings. He should have a thorough knowledge of all materials, their qualifying marks or brands, and the special features of good and bad in each class, their uses and method of use. He should be able to control and manage both the men and materials; and briefly, in a builder, as opposed to an architect, the constructive knowledge should predominate.

On large or important works it is usual to have a clerk of works or delegate from the architect; his duties are to be on the works while they are in progress and endeavour by constant attention to secure the use of the best materials and construction, and to report to the architect for his instruction any difficulties that may arise. He should be a thoroughly practical man as opposed to the architectural draughtsman. His salary is paid by the client, and is not included in the architect's remuneration.

American building acts agree in a general manner with those enforced in London. But whereas New York allows the erection American practice. of frame or wood structures, while defining a certain portion of the city inside which no new frame or wood structures shall be erected, in London and the large cities of Great Britain the erection of wood frame buildings as dwellings is prohibited. In New York City provision is made for a space at the rear of domestic buildings at least 10 ft. deep, but such depth is increased when the building is over 60 ft. high, and is varied under special circumstances. In London this depth is the same, but the height of the building in relation to the space required in the rear thereof shall be constructed to keep within an angle of 63½ degrees, inclining from the rear boundary towards the building from the level of pavement in front of building; the position from which the angle is taken is varied under special circumstances. In the smaller English towns the building regulations are framed on the model by-laws, and these increase the depth of the yard or garden according to the height of the building.

With regard to the strength and proportion of materials, these are not dealt with in the London Building Act to the same extent as in the New York; for example, in the New York acts (parts 4 and 5)[2] it is prescribed that the bricks used shall be good, hard, well-burned bricks. The sand used for mortar shall be clean, sharp, grit sand, free from loam or dirt, and shall not be finer than the standard samples kept in the office of the department of buildings; also the quality of lime and mortar is fully described, and the strengths of steel and cast-iron, and tests of new materials. Also it is required that all excavations for buildings shall be properly guarded and protected so as to prevent them from becoming dangerous to life or limb, and shall be sheath-piled where necessary by the person or persons causing the excavations to be made, to prevent the adjoining earth from caving in. Plans filed in the department of buildings shall be accompanied by a statement of the character of the soil at the level of the footings. There are also requirements as to protecting adjoining property. The bearing capacity of soils, pressure under footings of foundations, and in part 6 the materials of walls and the methods to be observed in building them are defined.

Part 23 deals with floor loads, and the strength of floors constructed of various materials, and requires that the temporary support shall be strong enough to carry the load placed upon them during the progress of any works to buildings. Part 24 deals with the calculations and strength of materials, and wind pressure. Parts 4 and 5 of the New York Building Code are not dealt with by the London Building Act, but the local by-laws of the various districts deal with these. Part 6 of the New York code is dealt with partly by the London Building Act, and partly by the local by-laws. Parts 23 and 24 of the New York code are not dealt with in the English acts at all. In America the standard quality for all materials is set out, but in no English acts do we find the definition of the quality of timber, new materials, steel, etc. Iron and steel construction is in its infancy in England as compared with America, and probably this accounts for no special regulations being in force; but part 22 of the New York Building Code, section 110 to 129 inclusive, deals very fully with iron and steel construction, and this is further supplemented by sections 137 to 140 inclusive.

Sanitary work is dealt with in London by section 39 of the Public Health (London) Act, and the drainage by-laws of the London County Council, in which every detail is very fully gone into with regard to the laying of drains, and fitting up of soil pipes, w.c.'s, etc., all of which is to be carried out and tested to the satisfaction of the local borough's sanitary inspector. The general requirements of New York with regard to sanitary work are very similar with a few more restrictions, and are carried out under "the rules and regulations for plumbing, drainage, water-supply, and ventilation of buildings." The noticeable feature of the New York regulations is that all master plumbers have to be registered, which is not so in England. The New York regulations have 183 sections relating to sanitary work, and the English regulations have 96 sections. Also by part 16 of the Amendments to Plumbing Rules 1903, the New York laws require that, before any construction of, or alterations to, any gas piping or fittings are commenced, permits must be obtained from the superintendent of buildings; these are only issued to a registered plumber.