Cachoeira, an important inland town of Bahia, Brazil, on the Paraguassu river, about 48 m. from São Salvador, with which it is connected by river-boats. Pop. (1890) of the city, 12,607; of the municipality, 48,352. The Bahia Central railway starts from this point and extends S. of W. to Machado Portella, 161 m., and N. to Feira de Santa Anna, 28 m. Although badly situated on the lower levels of the river (52 ft. above sea-level) and subject to destructive floods, Cachoeira is one of the most thriving commercial and industrial centres in the state. It exports sugar and tobacco and is noted for its cigar and cotton factories.