Calceolaria, in botany, a genus belonging to the natural order Scrophulariaceae, containing about 150 species of herbaceous or shrubby plants, chiefly natives of the South American Andes of Peru and Chile. The calceolaria of the present day has been developed into a highly decorative plant, in which the herbaceous habit has preponderated. The plants are now very generally raised annually from seed, which is sown about the end of June in a mixture of loam, leaf-mould and sand, and, being very small, must be only slightly covered. When the plants are large enough to handle they are pricked out an inch or two apart into 3-inch or 5-inch pots; when a little more advanced they are potted singly. They should be wintered in a greenhouse with a night temperature of about 40°, occupying a shelf near the light. By the end of February they should be moved into 8-inch or 10-inch pots, using a compost of three parts good turfy loam, one part leaf-mould, and one part thoroughly rotten manure, with a fair addition of sand. They need plenty of light and air, but must not be subjected to draughts. When the pots get well filled with roots, they must be liberally supplied with manure water.

In all stages of growth the plants are subject to the attacks of the green-fly, for which they must be fumigated.

The so-called shrubby calceolarias used for bedding are increased from cuttings, planted in autumn in cold frames, where they can be wintered, protected from frost by the use of mats and a good layer of litter placed over the glass and round the sides.