August is said to have derived its name from the Roman Emperor, Augustus Caesar, to whom it was dedicated in honour of his being created Consul in this month, and having triumphed three times in Rome, subjected Egypt to the Roman power, ana put an end to civil wars. It was called Sextilis, or the sixth month, in the Album calendar, in which it had only twenty-eight days assigned to it. Romulus added two days, and Augustus Caesar a third, which number it has since retained ; and from the time that Numa Pompilius revised the calendar, it has continued as the eighth month of the year.
The Anglo-Saxons called it Arn-monat, or Barn-monat. alluding to this being the period when their barns were commonly filled, the Saxon word Am signifying harvest. It was also called Weod-monath, clothing month, alluding to their fields being then clothed with corn, just as the Romans dedicated this month to Ceres, the goddess of harvest.
The Synonymes of the month are as follow : - In Latin, Augustus ; French, Aout; Italian and Portuguese, Agosto.
The allegorical representation of the month is a young man of rustic and cheerful countenance, with a flame-coloured habit; upon his head is a garland of rye and wheait ; upon his arm a basket of ripe fruits; at his belt a sickle; and at his side the sign Virgo, the Virgin, because the sun enters that constellation on the 23rd of the month.
The month of August is the most glorious and resplendent of the year, for it is then that Ceres, with her golden-eared corn, gladdens the hearts of men. Sheaves of wheat are now piled upon the carts, and the whole field is astir.
August 15, 1824. Gen. Lafayette arrived in New York, from France, and spent the year in traveling through the country, being received at every place with unbounded enthusiasm.
16th. 1777. Battle of Bennington, in which the Americans, led by Colonel Stark, d an important Colonel
Baum, who had been General Bur-lie to capture some at that place.
in August, 1814, Washington City surrendered to a British army, who destroyed the Capitol, President's Mansion, and many other valuable buildings.
August 20,1794. General Wayne obtained decisive a victory over the hostile Indians, as to produce a salutary effect upon all the tribes north-west of the Ohio.
August 27, 177G. Battle of Long Island, in which the Americans were defeated, but Washington made an admirable retreat to Now York on the 29th, and thence across Jersey to Philadelphia.
The 1st of the month is Lammas-day, which is a fixed festival, but not observed by the Church of England. Some derive the term from Lamb Mass, because on that day the tenants who held lands under the cathedral church in York, which is dedicated to Si. Peter ad Vincula, were bound by their tenure to bring a live lamb into the church at high mass. Lammas seems to have been held as a day of thank-giving for the new fruits of the earth. It was probably one of the great festival days of our heathen ancestors.
6th. The next festival is the Trans figura-tion of OUr Lord, which is not observed by the Church of England, although inserted in the calendar attached to the Prayer Book. It was instituted by Pope Calixtus, in commemoration of Christ's transfiguration on the Holy Mount.
10th. St. Lawrence. - This is a festival held in honour of this saint, who suffered martyrdom at Rome by order of the Emperor Valerian. He is the tutelary saint of the Spaniards; and the church of the Ee-curial, in Spain, founded by Philip II., and dedicated to St. Lorenzo, in honour of Philip having won a battle upon the 10th of August, is built in the form of a gridiron, which is supposed to have been the instru- ment of torture employed by the Emperor , Valerian.
loth. The Assumption of the Virgin. - This is a grand festival of the Romish Church. It was instituted in 813, to celebrate the ascension of the Virgin into heaven. In Catholic countries this day is ; marked by splendid ceremonies and proces- sions.
24th. 67. Bartholomew's-day is a festival of the Church of England. St. Bartholomew was an apostle, but there is no scriptural account of his labours or death. The legend of the Romish church represents him as preaching in the Indies, and concluding Lis life by being flayed alive by order of As-tyages, brother to Palemon, the king of Armenia. - This day has a horrible celebrity in connexion with the massacre of the Protest nts at Paris, in 1572, when 10,000 were butchered in a fortnight, besides 90,000 in the provinces.
Sir William Herschel was one of the most distinguished astronomers of modern times, to whom the scientific world is deeply indebted for the discovery, in 1781, of a new primary planet, which was named, in honour of George III., Georgium Sidus. He was born at Hanover in 1738, and died in 1822.
The name of the French Emperor, Napoleon BONAPARTE, is too well known to require any lengthened observations. For nearly a quarter of a century he was the great leading star, military and political, of the western world. But though he rose in glory, he set in humility. He was born at Ajaccio, in Corsica, on the 15th of August, 1769, and was educated at the military school of Brienne, from 1779 to 1784.