Meerschaum. The appearance of this substance, before its manufacture, somewhat resembles foam. It is stated to be found floating in the sea of Azof, and on the shores of Samos, and Negropont. From either of these circumstances its name, meaning "sea-foam," may have been derived. It consists of a hydrate of magnesia, with silex, carbonic acid, and water. It is dug from the earth in several places in Turkey, where it is used as soap. The tobacco-pipes are made in Turkey by a process analogous to that for making pottery-ware, and imported into Germany, where they are prepared for sale by soaking them first in wax, then in tallow, and finally polishing them with shave-grass, or crape. The latter is used to remove scratches or imperfections from those injured in packing. Artificial meerschaum is made with fine plaster of Paris baked for a few hours, and thrown, while warm, into melted wax, or linseed oil.