Ruby is a red sparkling gem, of the first rank among precious stones. The ruby is found in Pegu and in Ceylon. There are rubies also found in Europe, particularly in Bohemia and Hungary, especially the former, where in a mine of flints, are sometimes found rubies, as fine and hard as any of the eastern ones. Rubies can be so nearly counterfeited, that the lapidaries themselves may be deceived. When a ruby exceeds twenty carats it is called a Carbuncle, the name of an imaginary stone described by the ancients. They long supposed the carbuncle to be taken from the dragon's head, and we hear of many a cavalier who went to combat with dragons, on purpose to gain this invaluable jewel. Vartoman assures us, that the king of Pegu used no other light in the night time, but that of his carbuncle, which cast a blase like that of the sun. The ancients credulously attributed many virtues to the ruby, as that it expels poisons, cures the plague, banishes sorrow, etc. The balass, spinell, oriental, and Brazilian rubies, all consist of silicai, alumina, lime, and iron, intimately combined in different. proportions.