Topaz is the third order of gems after the diamond. It is transparent, and a beautiful yellow or gold colour, very hard, and takes a fine polish. It is found in the Indies, in Ethiopia, Arabia, Peru, and Bohemia; and is known in commerce by the names Oriental, Brazilian, and Saxon topaz. The oriental ones are most esteemed : their colour borders on the orange: those of Peru are softer, but their colour nearly the same. Those of Madagascar were in much esteem, but are now little valued. The topaz is easily counterfeited, and there are factitious ones, which to the eye do not appear inferior to the natural ones. Topaz consists of silex, alumina, carbonate of lime, and iron. The ancients ascribed great virtues to the topaz, which are now discredited. In the 118th Psalm there is mention made of the topaz. It appears to be the true chrysolite of the ancients.