There are two general classes or degrees of denaturizing, viz., the "complete" and the "incomplete," according to the purpose for which the alcohol so denaturized is to be ultimately used.

I

Complete denaturization by the German system is accomplished by the addition to every 100 liters (equal to 26.5 gallons) of spirits:

(a)  Two and one-half liters of the "standard" denaturizer, made of 4 parts of wood alcohol, 1 part of pyridine (a nitrogenous base obtained by distilling bone oil or coal tar), with the addition of 50 grams to each liter of oil of lavender or rosemary.

(b)   One and one-fourth liters of the above "standard" and 2 liters of benzol with every 100 liters of alcohol.

II

Incomplete denaturization—i. e., sufficient to prevent alcohol from being drunk, but not to disqualify it from use for various special purposes, for which the wholly denaturized spirits would be unavailable—is accomplished by several methods as follows, the quantity and nature of each substance given being the prescribed dose for each 100 liters (26.5 gallons) of spirits:

(c)   Five liters of wood alcohol or 0.5 liter of pyridine.

(d)   Twenty liters of solution of shellac, containing 1 part gum to 2 parts alcohol of 90-per-cent purity. Alcohol for the manufacture of celluloid and pegamoid is denaturized.

(e)   By the addition of 1 kilogram of camphor or 2 liters oil of turpentine or 0.5 liter benzol to each 100 liters of spirits. Alcohol to be used in the manufacture of ethers, aldehyde, agaricin, white lead, bromo-silver gelatines, photographic papers and plates, electrode plates, collodion, salicylic acid and salts, aniline chemistry, and a great number of other purposes, is denaturized by the addition of—

(f) Ten liters sulphuric ether, or 1 part of benzol, or 0.5 part oil of turpentine, or 0.025 part of animal oil.

For the manufacture of varnishes and inks alcohol is denaturized by the addition of oil of turpentine or animal oil, and for the production of soda soaps by the addition of 1 kilogram of castor oil. Alcohol for the production of lanolin is prepared by adding 5 liters of benzine to each hectoliter of spirits.