I

This alloy is composed of cadmium, 3 parts; tin, 4; bismuth, 15; and lead, 8. The simplest method of preparation is to heat the metals, in small pieces, in a crucible, stirring constantly, as soon as fusion

begins, with a stick of hard wood. The stirring is important, in order to prevent the metals, whose specific gravity varies considerably, from being deposited in layers. The alloy softens at 140° F. and melts completely at 158° F. The color is silvery white, with a luster like polished silver, and the metal can be bent, hammered, and turned. These properties would make it valuable for many purposes where a beautiful appearance is of special importance, but on account of the considerable amount of cadmium and bismuth which it contains, it is rather expensive, and therefore limited in use. Casts of small animals, insects, lizards, etc., have been prepared from it, which were equal in sharpness to the best galvanoplastic work. Plaster of Paris is poured over the animal to be cast, and after sharp drying, the animal is removed and the mold filled up with Lipowitz's metal. The mold is placed in a vessel of water, and by heating to the boiling point the metal is melted and deposited in the finest impressions of the mold.

This alloy is most excellent for soldering tin, lead, Britannia metal, and nickel, being especially adapted to the last two metals on account of its silver-white color. But here again its costliness prevents its general use, and cheaper alloys possessing the same properties have been sought. In cases where the silver-white color and the low melting point are not of the first importance, the alloys given below may very well be used in the place of it.

II

Cadmium alloy (melting point, 170° F.): Cadmium, 2 parts; tin, 3; lead, 11; bismuth, 16.

III

Cadmium alloy (melting point, 167° F.): Cadmium, 10 parts; tin, 3; lead, 8; bismuth, 8.

Cadmium alloys (melting point, 203° F.):

IV V VI

Cadmium.......... 1 1 1 parts

Tin............... 2 3 1 "

Bismuth........... 3 5 2 "

VII

A very fusible alloy, melting at 150° F., is composed of tin, 1 or 2 parts; lead, 2 or 3; bismuth, 4 or 15; cadmium, 1 or 2.

VIII

Wood's alloy melts between 140° and 161.5° F. It is composed of lead, 4 parts; tin, 2; bismuth, 5 to 8; cadmium, 1 to 2. In color it resembles platinum, and is malleable to a certain extent.

IX

Cadmium alloy (melting point, 179.5° F.): Cadmium, 1 part; lead, 6

parts; bismuth, 7. This, like the preceding, can be used for soldering in hot water.

X

Cadmium alloy (melting point, 300° F.): Cadmium, 2 parts; tin, 4; lead, 2. This is an excellent soft solder, with a melting point about 86 degrees below that of lead and tin alone.