This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Pick the apples off the tree by hand. Every apple before going into the press should be carefully
wiped. As soon as a charge of apples is ground, remove the pomace and put in a cask with a false bottom and a strainer beneath it, and a vessel to catch the drainage from pomace. As fast as the juice runs from the press place it in clean, sweet, open tubs or casks with the heads out and provide with a faucet, put in about two inches above bottom. The juice should be closely watched and as soon as the least sign of fermentation appears (bubbles on top, etc.) it should be run off into casks prepared for this purpose and placed in a moderately cool room. The barrels should be entirely filled, or as near to the bunghole as possible. After fermentation is well under way the spume or foam should be scraped off with a spoon several times a day. When fermentation has ceased the cider is racked off into clean casks, filled to the bunghole, and the bung driven in tightly. It is now ready for use or for bottling.
To convert ordinary cider into champagne cider, proceed as follows: To 100 gallons of good cider add 3 gallons of strained honey (or 24 pounds of white sugar will answer), stir in well, tightly bung, and let alone for a week. Clarify the cider by adding a half gallon of skimmed milk, or 4 ounces of gelatin dissolved in sufficient hot water and add 4 gallons of proof spirit. Let stand 3 days longer, then syphon off, bottle, cork, and tie or wire down. Bunging the cask tightly is done in order to induce a slow fermentation, and thus retain in the cider as much carbonic acid as possible.
Put 10 gallons of old and clean cider in a strong and iron-bound cask, pitched within (a sound beer cask is the very thing), and add and stir in well 40 ounces of simple syrup. Add 5 ounces of tartaric acid, let dissolve, then add 7.5 ounces sodium bicarbonate in powder. Have the bung ready and the moment the soda is added put it in and drive it home. The cider will be ready for use in a few hours.