In order to prevent the eating away of the sheets and tubes by electrolytic action, it has long been the practice of marine engineers to suspend slabs of zinc in their boilers. The zinc, being more susceptible to the electrolytic action than the iron, is eaten away, while the iron remains unimpaired. The use of zinc in this way has been found also to reduce the trouble from boiler scale. Whether it be due to the formation of hydrogen bubbles between the heating surfaces and incipient scale, to the presence in the water of the zinc salts resulting from the dissolution of the zinc, or to whatever cause, it appears to be a general conclusion among those who have used it that the zinc helps the scale, as well as the corrosion. Nobody has ever claimed for it that it prevented the attachment of scale altogether, but the consensus of opinion is that it "helps some."

Boiler Pressure

It hardly pays to reduce pressure on boilers, except in very extreme cases, but if it can be done by throttling before the steam reaches the cylinder of the engine it would be an advantage, because this retains the heat units due to the higher pressure in the steam, and the throttling has a slight superheating effect. As a matter of fact, tests go to show that for light loads and high pressure a throttling engine may do better than an automatic cut-off. The ideal arrangement is to throttle the steam for light loads; for heavier loads, allow the variable cut-off to come into play. This practice has been carried into effect by the design of Mr. E. J. Armstrong, in which he arranges the shaft governor so that there is negative lead up to nearly one-quarter cut-off, after which the lead becomes positive, and this has the effect of throttling the steam for the earlier loads and undoubtedly gives better economy, in addition to making the engine run more quietly.