This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
In accordance with the requirements of dyers, many of the following recipes describe dyes for large quantities of goods, but to make them equally adapted for the use of private families they are usually given in even quantities, so that it is an easy matter to ascertain the quantity of materials required for dyeing, when once the weight of the goods is known, the quantity of materials used being reduced in proportion to the smaller quantity of goods.
Employ soft water for all dyeing purposes, if it can be procured, using 4 gallons water to 1 pound of goods; for larger quantities a little less water will do. Let all the implements used in dyeing be kept perfectly clean. Prepare the goods by scouring well with soap and water, washing out the soap well, and dipping in warm water, before immersion in the dye or mordant. Goods should be well aired, rinsed, and properly hung up after dyeing. Silks and fine goods should be tenderly handled, otherwise injury to the fabric will result.
Water, 20 to 30 parts; chlorate of potassa, 1 part; sal ammoniac, 1 part; chloride of copper, 1 part; aniline and hydrochloric acid, each 1 part, previously mixed together. It is essential that the preparation should be acid, and the more acid it is the more rapid will be the production of the blacks; if too much so, it may injure the fabric. The fabric or yarn is dried in ageing rooms at a low temperature for 24 hours, and washed afterwards.
For 40 pounds goods, use sumac, 30 pounds; boil | of an hour; let the goods steep overnight, and immerse them in limewater, 40 minutes, remove, and allow them to drip § of an hour; add copperas, 4 pounds, to the sumac, liquor, and dip 1 hour more; next work them through limewater for 20 minutes; then make a new dye of logwood, 20 pounds, boil 2.5 hours, and enter the goods 3 hours; then add bichromate of potash, 1 pound, to the new dye, and dip 1 hour more. Work in clean cold water and dry out of the sun.
Best al cohol, 4 ounces; pulverized black sealing wax, 1 ounce. Place in a phial, and put the phial into a warm place, stirring or shaking occasionally until the wax is dissolved. Apply it when warm before the fire or in the sun. This makes a beautiful gloss.
For 40 pounds of goods, use blue vitriol, 3 pounds; boil a short time, then dip the wool or fabric J of an hour, airing frequently. Take out the goods, and make a dye with logwood, 24 pounds; boil 1/2 hour, dip 3/4 of an hour, air the goods, and dip 1/4 of an hour longer; then wash in strong soapsuds. A good fast color.
For 50 pounds of wool, take bichromate of potash, 1 pound, 4 ounces; ground argal, 15 ounces; boil together and put in the fabric, stirring well, and let it remain in the dye 5 hours. Take it out, rinse slightly in clean water, then make a new dye, into which put logwood, 1.5 pounds. Boil 1.25 hours, adding chamber lye, 5 pints. Let the fabric remain in all night, and wash out in clean water.
Mix together 1 pound Bismarck, 5 gallons water, and 3/4 pound sulphuric acid. This paste dissolves easily in hot water and may be used directly for dyeing. A liquid dye may be prepared by making the bulk of the above mixture to 2 gallons with alcohol. To dye, sour with sulphuric acid; add a quantity of sulphate of soda, immerse the wool, and add the color by small portions, keeping the temperature under 212° F. Very interesting shades may be developed by combining the color with indigo paste or picric acid.