Although decorations on ivory articles, such as umbrella handles, cuff-buttons, fans, book-covers, boxes, etc., are generally engraved, the work is frequently done by etching. The patterns must be very delicate, and are executed in lines only. The simplest way is to cover the surface with a thin rosin varnish. Then transfer the pattern and scratch it out accurately with a pointed needle. Otherwise proceed same as in etching on metal and stone, making an edge of modeling wax around the surface to be etched and pouring on the acid, which consists, in this case, of sulphuric acid, 1 part, to which 5 to 6 parts of water are added. It acts very quickly. The lines turn a deep black. If brown lines are desired, dissolve 1 part of silver nitrate in 5 parts of water, etch for a short time, and expose the article for a few hours to the light, until the design turns brown. Very often etchings in ivory are gilded. For this purpose, fill the etched patterns accurately with siccatives, using a writing pen, dry, and dab on gold leaf. After a few hours remove the superfluous gold with wadding, and the design will be nicely gilded. Etched ivory articles present a very handsome appearance if they are first covered with a silvery gloss, the design being gilded afterwards. For the former purpose the etched object is laid in the above described solution of silver nitrate until it has acquired a dark yellow color. Then rinse it off in clean water and, while still moist, expose to direct sunlight. After 3 to 4 hours the surface becomes entirely black, but will take on a fine silvery luster if rubbed with soft leather.