Oil for Firearms

Either pure vaseline oil, white, 0.870, or else pure white-bone oil, proof to cold, is employed for this purpose, since these two oils are not only free from acid, but do not oxidize or resinify.

Leather Lubricants

Russian tallow. 1 pound; beeswax, 6 ounces; black pitch, 4 ounces; common castor oil, 3 pounds; soft paraffine, 0.5 pound; oil of citronella, 0.5 ounce. Melt all together in a saucepan, except the citronella, which add on cooling. Stir occasionally.

Machinery Oils


The solid fat, called bakourine, a heavy lubricant which possesses extraordinary lubricating qualilities, has a neutral reaction and melts only at about 176° to 188° F. It is prepared as follows:

A mixture is made of 100 parts of Bienne petroleum or crude naphtha, with 25 parts of castor oil or some mineral oil, and subjected to the action of 60 or 70 parts of sulphuric acid of 60° Be. The acid is poured in a small stream into the oil, while carefully stirring. The agitation is continued until a thick and blackish-brown mass is obtained free from non-incorporated petroleum. Very cold water of 2 or 3 times the weight of the mass is then added, and the whole is stirred until the mass turns white and becomes homogeneous. It is left at rest for 24 hours, after which the watery liquid, on the surface of which the fat is floating, must be poured off. After resting again from 3 to 4 days, the product is drawn off, carefully neutralized with caustic potash, and placed in barrels ready for shipping.


Melt in a kettle holding 2 to 4 times as much as the volume of the mass which is to be boiled therein, 10 parts, by weight, of tallow in 20 parts of rape oil on a moderate fire; add 10 parts of freshly and well burnt lime, slaked in 30 or 40 parts of water; increase the fire somewhat, and boil with constant stirring until a thick froth forms and the mass sticks to the bottom of the kettle. Burning should be prevented by diligent stirring. Then add in portions of 10 parts each, gradually, 70 parts of rape oil and boil with a moderate fire, until the little lumps gradually forming have united to a whole uniform mass. With this operation it is of importance to be able to regulate the fire quickly. Samples are now continually taken, which are allowed to cool quickly on glass plates. The boiling down must not be carried so far that the samples harden on cooling; they must spin long, fine threads, when touched with the finger. When this point is reached add, with constant stirring, when the heat has abated sufficiently (which may be tested by pouring in a few drops of water), 25 to 30 parts of water. Now raise the fire, without ceasing to stir, until the mass comes to a feeble, uniform boil. In order to be able to act quickly in case of a sudden boiling over, the fire must be such that it can be removed quickly, and a little cold water must always be kept on hand. Next, gradually add in small portions, so as not to disturb the boiling of the mass, 500 parts of paraffine oil (if very thick, 800 to 900 parts may be added), remove from the fire, allow the contents of the kettle to clarify, and skim off the warm grease from the sediment into a stirring apparatus. Agitate until the mass begins to thicken and cool; if the grease should still be too solid, stir in a little paraffine oil the second time. The odor of the paraffine oil may be disguised by the admixture of a little mirbane oil.

Oils For Cutting Tools

The proportion of ingredients of a lubricating mixture for cutting tools is 6 gallons of water, 3.5 pounds of soft soap, and 0.5 gallon of clean refuse oil. Heat the water and mix with the soap, preferably in a mechanical mixer; afterwards add the oil. A cast-iron circular tank to hold 12 gallons, fitted with a tap at the bottom and having three revolving arms fitted to a vertical shaft driven by bevels and a fast and loose pulley, answers all requirements for a mixer. This should be kept running all through the working day.