This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Any hard substances must first be broken up and pounded in a pounding or stamping mill, or in any other suitable manner, thus reducing the lumps to a granular condition. When this has been done, the coarse is separated from the fine parts and the former again operated on. The next process is roller grinding for reducing the hard fritted granular particles to a fine powder. These mills vary in construction, but a satisfactory type is shown in Fig. 9. Motion is conveyed by a belt to the driving pulley, and this is transmitted from the pinion to the large bevel, which is connected by a shaft to the ground plate. As this revolves the material causes the mill wheels to revolve, and in this way the material is reduced to a powder. The rollers are of reduced diameter on the inner side to prevent slippage, and when all the parts are made of iron, the metal must be close grained and of very hard structure, so as to reduce the amount removed by wear to a minimum. When the materials are ground wet, the powder should be carefully protected from dust and thoroughly dried before passing to the next operation.
Grinding Mill Fig. 9
The glazing or enamel mills are shown in Fig. 10. These mills consist of a strong iron frame securely bolted to a stone foundation. In the sketch shown the* framing carries 2 mills, but 3 or 4 can be arranged for. A common arrangement for small factories consists of 2 large mills, and 1 smaller mill, driven from the same shaft. One of the mills is used for foundation or gray mixings, the second for white, and the smallest one for colored mixings. In these mills it is essential that the construction is such as to prevent any iron fitting coming into contact with the mixing, for, as has already been explained, the iron will cause discoloration. The ground plate is composed of quartz and is immovable. It is surrounded by a wooden casing—as shown at a—and bound together by iron hoops. The millstones are heavy, rectangular blocks of quartz, called "French burr stone," and into the center the spindle, 6, is led. The powdered material mixed with about three times its bulk of water is poured into the vats, a, and the grinding stones are then set in motion. When a condition ready for enameling has been reached the mixture is run off through the valves, c. Each mill can be thrown out of gear when required, by means of a clutch box, without interfering with the working of the others. The grinding stones wear rapidly and require to be refaced from time to time. To avoid stoppage of the work, therefore, it is advisable to always have a spare set in readiness to replace those removed for refacing. The composition of the stones should not be neglected, for, in many cases, faults in the enamel have been traced to the wearing away of stones containing earthy or metallic matter.
Glazing Mill Fig. 10