Aniline Red

Inclose the aniline in a small muslin bag. Have a kettle (tin or brass) filled with moderately hot water and rub the substance out. Then immerse the goods to be colored, and in a short time they are done. It improves the color to wring the goods out of strong soapsuds before putting them in the dye. This is a permanent color on wool or silk.

Red Madder

To 100 pounds of fabric, use 20 pounds of alum, 5 pounds of tartar, and 5 pounds of muriate of tin. When these are dissolved, enter the goods and let them boil for 2 hours, then take out, let cool, and lay overnight. Into fresh water, stir 75 pounds of good madder, and enter the fabric at 120° F. and bring it up to 200° F. in the course of an hour. Handle well to secure evenness, then rinse and dry.

Red for Wool

For 40 pounds of goods, make a tolerably thick paste of lac dye and sulphuric acid, and allow it to stand for a day. Then take tartar, 4 pounds, tin liquor, 2 pounds 8 ounces, and 3 pounds of the paste; make a hot bath with sufficient water, and enter the goods for 0.75 hour; afterwards carefully rinse and dry.

Crimson for Silk

For 1 pound of goods, use alum, 3 ounces; dip at hand heat 1 hour; take out and drain, while making a new dye, by boiling for 10 minutes, cochineal, 3 ounces; bruised nutgalls, 2 ounces; and cream of tartar, 0.5 ounce, in 1 pail of water. When a little cool begin to dip, raising the heat to a boil, continuing to dip 1 hour. Wash and dry.

Aniline Scarlet

For every 40 pounds of goods, dissolve 5 pounds white vitriol (sulphate of zinc) at 180° F., place the goods in this bath for 10 minutes, then add the color, prepared by boiling for a few minutes, 1 pound aniline scarlet in 3 gallons water, stirring the same continually. This solution has to be filtered before being added to the bath. The goods remain in the latter for 15 minutes, when they have become browned and must be boiled for another half hour in the same bath after the solution of sal ammoniac. The more of this is added the deeper will be the shade.

Scarlet with Cochineal

For 50 pounds of wool, yarn, or cloth, use cream of tartar, 1 pound 9 ounces; cochineal, pulvenzed, 120.5 ounces; muriate of tin or scarlet spirit, 8 pounds. After boiling the dye, enter the goods, work them well for 15 minutes, then boil them 1.5 hours, slowly agitating the goods while boiling, wash in clean water, and dry out of the sun.

Scarlet with Lac Dye

For 100 pounds of flannel or yarn, take 25 pounds of ground lac dye, 15 pounds of scarlet spirit (made as per directions below), 5 pounds of tartar, 1 pound of flavine, or according to shade, 1 pound of tin crystals, 5 pounds of muriatic acid. Boil all for 15 minutes, then cool the dye to 170° F. Enter the goods, and handle them quickly at first. Let boil 1 hour, and rinse while yet hot, before the gum and impurities harden. This color stands scouring with soap better than cochineal scarlet. A small quantity of sulphuric acid may be added to dissolve the gum.

Muriate of Tin or Scarlet Spirit

Take 16 pounds muriatic acid, 22° Bé.; 1   pound feathered tin, and water, 2 pounds. The acid should be put in a stoneware pot, and the tin added, and allowed to dissolve. The mixture should be kept a few days before using. The tin is feathered or granulated by melting in a suitable vessel, and pouring it from a height of about 5 feet into a pailful of water. This is a most powerful agent in certain colors, such as scarlets, oranges, pinks, etc.

Pink for Cotton

For 40 pounds of goods, use redwood, 20 pounds; muriate of tin, 20.5 pounds. Boil the redwood 1 hour, turn off into a large vessel, add the muriate of tin, and put in the goods. Let it stand 5 or 10 minutes, and a good fast pink will be produced.

Pink for Wool

For 60 pounds of goods, take alum, 5 pounds 12 ounces; boil and immerse the goods 50 minutes; then add to the dye cochineal well pulverized, 1 pound, 4 ounces; cream of tartar, 5 pounds; boil and enter the goods while boiling, until the color is satisfactory.