This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Acidulate the bath by sulphuric acid, or use sulphate of soda; both these substances render the shade bluish. Dye at 212° F. To give a fair middle shade to 10 pounds of wool, a quantity of solution equal to 0.5 to 0.75 ounces of the solid dye will be required. The color of the dyed fabric is improved by washing in soap and water, and then passing through a bath soured by sulphuric acid.
Purple,—For 40 pounds of goods, use alum, 3 pounds; muriate of tin, 4 teacups; pulverized cochineal, 1 pound; cream of tartar, 2 pounds. Boil the alum, tin, and cream of tartar, for 20 minutes, add the cochineal and boil 5 minutes; immerse the goods 2 hours; remove and enter them in a new dye composed of brazil wood, 3 pounds; logwood, 7 pounds; alum, 4 pounds, and muriate of tin, 8 cupfuls, adding a little extract of indigo.
Get up a tub of hot logwood liquor, enter 3 pieces, give them 5 ends, and hedge out. Enter them in a clean alum tub, give them 5 ends, and hedge out. Get up another tub of logwood liquor, enter, give them 5 ends, and hedge out; renew the alum tub, give 5 ends in that, and finish.
For 10 pounds of goods, enter the goods in a blue dye bath, and secure a light-blue color, dry, and dip in a warm solution containing alum, 2.5 pounds. Should a deeper color be required, add a little extract of indigo.
For 1 pound of woolen goods, magenta shade, 96 grains, apothecaries' weight, of aniline red, will be required. Dissolve in a little warm alcohol, using, say, 6 fluidounces, or about 6 gills alcohol per ounce of aniline. Many dyers use wood spirits because of its cheapness. For a solferino shade, use 64 grains aniline red, and dissolve in 4 ounces alcohol, to each 1 pound of goods. Cold water, 1 quart, will dissolve these small quantities of aniline red, but the cleanest and quickest way will be found by using the alcohol, or wood spirits. Clean the cloth and goods by steeping at a gentle heat in weak soapsuds, rinse in several masses of clean water and lay aside moist. The alcoholic solution of aniline is to be added from time to time to the warm or hot dye bath, till the color on the goods is of the desired shade. The goods are to be removed from the dye bath before each addition of the alcoholic solution, and the bath is to be well stirred before the goods are returned. The alcoholic solution should be first dropped into a little water, and well mixed, and the mixture should then be strained into the dye bath. If the color is not dark enough after working from 20 to 30 minutes, repeat the removal of the goods from the bath, and the addition of the solution, and the re-immersion of the goods from 15 to 30 minutes more, or until suited, then remove from the bath and rinse in several masses of clean water, and dry in the shade. Use about 4 gallons water for dye bath for 1 pound of goods; less water for larger quantities.
A good violet dye may be given by passing the goods first through a solution of verdigris, then through a decoction of logwood, and lastly through alum water. A fast violet may be given by dyeing the goods crimson with cochineal, without alum or tartar, and after rinsing passing them through the indigo vat. Linens or cottons are first galled with 18 per cent of gallnuts, next passed through a mordant of alum, iron liquor, and sulphate of copper, working them well, then worked in a madder bath made with an equal weight of root, and lastly brightened with soap or soda.
Take alum, 4 pounds; tartaric acid, 1 pound; chloride of tin, 1 pound. Dissolve and boil, allowing the hats to remain in the boiling solution 2 hours; then add enough decoction of logwood, carmine, and indigo to induce the desired shade, and rinse finally in water in which some alum has been dissolved.
For 50 pounds of goods, use camwood, 10 pounds, and boil 20 minutes; dip the goods 0.5 hour, boil again, and dip 40 minutes; then darken with blue vitriol, 15 ounces, and 5 pounds of copperas.
For 5 pounds of silk, use archil, 70.5 pounds, and mix well with the liquor. Make it boil 0.25 hour, and dip the silk quickly; then let it cool, and wash in river water. A fine half violet, or lilac, more or less full, will be obtained.