For the production of the red and other shades on matt gold articles, the so-called gold varnishes are employed, which consist of shellac dissolved in alcohol and are colored with gum rosins. Thus a handsome golden yellow is obtained from shellac, 35 parts; seed-lac, 35 parts; dragon's blood, 50 parts; gamboge, 50 parts; dissolved in 400 parts of alcohol; the clear solution is decanted and mixed with 75 parts of Venice turpentine. By changing the amounts of the coloring rosins, shades from bright gold yellow to copper color are obtained. The varnish is applied evenly and after drying is wiped off from the raised portions of the article by means of a pad of wadding dipped into alcohol, whereby a handsome patination effect is produced, since the lacquer remains in the cavities. Chased articles are simply rubbed with earth colors ground into a paste with turpentine oil, for which purpose burnt sienna, fine ochers of a golden color, golden yellow, and various shades of green are employed.

I

Yellow wax........   32 parts

Red bole..........     3 parts

Crystallized verdigris.............     2 parts

Alum.............     2 parts

II

Yellow wax........ 95 parts

Red bole.......... 64 parts

Colcothar......... 2 parts

Crystallized verdigris............. 32 parts

Copper ashes....... 20 parts

Zinc vitriol......... 32 parts

Green vitriol....... 16 parts

Borax............. 1 part

The wax is melted and the finely powdered chemicals are stirred in, in rotation. If the gilt bronze goods are to obtain a lustrous orange shade, apply a mixture of ferric oxide, alum, cooking salt, and vinegar in the heated articles by means of a brush, heating to about 266° F. until the shade commences to turn black and water sprinkled on will evaporate with a hissing sound, then cool in water, dip in a mixture of 1 part of nitric acid with 40 parts of water, rinse thoroughly, dry, and polish. For the production of a pale-gold shade use a wax preparation consisting of:

III

Yellow wax........ 19 parts

Zinc vitriol......... 10 parts

Burnt borax........ 3 parts

Green-gold color is produced by a mixture of:

IV

Saltpeter.......... 6 parts

Green vitriol....... 2 parts

Zinc vitriol......... 1 part

Alum............. 1 part