Cold Varnish

I

Pyroxylin.......... 10 grains

Amyl alcohol....... 1 ounce

Amyl acetate....... 1 ounce

Allow to stand, shaking frequently till dissolved. Label: The negative should be thoroughly dried before this solution is applied, which may be done either by flowing it over the solution or with a flat brush. The negative should be placed in a warm place for at least 12 hours to thoroughly dry.

I

Japanese gold size Equal parts

Benzol Equal parts

Label: In applying this varnish great care should be taken not to use it near a light or open fire. It can be flowed over or brushed on the negative.

Black Varnish

Brunswick black. .. 1.5 ounces

Benzol............ 1 ounce

Label: The varnish should be applied with a brush, care being taken not to use it near a light or open fire.

Dead Black Varnish

Borax.............   SO grains

Shellac............   60 grains

Glycerine..........   30 minims

Water.............     2 ounces

Boil till dissolved, filter, and add aniline black, 120 grains.

Label: Apply the solution with a brush, and repeat when dry if necessary.

Ordinary Negative Varnish

Gum sandarac..... 1 ounce

Orange shellac..... 0.5 ounce

Castor oil.......... 90 minims

Methyl alcohol..... 1 pint

Allow to stand with occasional agitation till dissolved, and then filter. Label: The negative should be heated before a fire till it can be comfortably borne on the back of the hand, and then the varnish flowed over, any excess being drained off, and the negative should then be again placed near the fire to dry.

Water Varnish

It is not only in connection with its application to a wet collodion film that water varnish forms a valuable addition to the stock of chemicals in all-round photography; it is almost invaluable in the case of gelatin as with wet collodion films. In the case of gelatin negatives the water varnish is applied in the shape of a wash directly after the negatives have been washed to free their films from all traces of hypo, or in other words, at that stage when the usual drying operation would begin. After the varnish has been applied the films are dried in the usual manner, and its application will soon convince anyone that has experienced the difficulty of retouching by reason of the want of a tooth in the film to make a lead-pencil bite, as the saying goes, that were this the only benefit accruing from its application it is well worthy of being employed.

The use of water varnish, however, does away with the necessity of employing collodion as an additional protection to a negative, and is, perhaps, the best known remedy against damage from silver staining that experienced workers are acquainted with. As a varnish it is not costly, neither is it difficult to make in reasonably small quantities, while its application is simplicity itself. The following formula is an excellent sample of water varnish:

Place in a clean, enameled pan 1 pint of water, into which insert 4 ounces of shellac in thin flakes, and place the vessel on a fire or gas stove until the water is raised to 212° F. When this temperature is reached a few drops of hot, saurated solution of borax is dropped into the boiling pan containing the shellac and water, taking care to stir vigorously with a long strip of glass until the shellac is all dissolved. Too much borax should not be added, only just sufficient to cause the shellac to dissolve, and it is better to stop short, if anything, before all the flakes dissolve out than to add too much borax. The solution is then filtered carefully and, when cold, the water varnish is ready for use.