For Axles of Heavy Vehicles

I

Tallow (free from acid), 19.5 parts; palm oil, 14 parts; sal soda, 5.5 parts; water, 3 parts, by weight. Dissolve the soda in the water and separately melt the tallow, then stir in the palm oil. This may be gently warmed before adding, as it greatly facilitates its incorporation with the tallow, unless the latter be made boiling hot, when it readily melts the semi-solid palm oil. When these two greases are thoroughly incorporated, pour the mixture slowly into the cold lye (or soda solution), and stir well until the mass is homogeneous. This lubricant can be made less solid by decreasing the tallow or increasing the palm oil.

II

Slaked lime (in powder), 8 parts, is slowly sifted into rosin oil, 10 parts. Stir it continuously to incorporate it thoroughly, and gently heat the mixture until of a syrupy consistency. Color with lampblack, or a solution of turmeric in a strong solution of sal soda. For blue grease, 275 parts of rosin oil are heated with 1 part of slaked lime and then allowed to cool. The supernatant oil is removed from the precipitated matter, and 5 or 6 parts of the foregoing rosin-oil soap are stirred in until all is a soft, unctuous mass.

For Axles of Ordinary Vehicles

I

Mix 80 parts of fat and 20 parts of very fine black lead; melt the fat in a varnished earthen vessel; add the black lead while constantly stirring until it is cold, for otherwise the black lead, on account of its density, would not remain in suspension in the melted fat. Axles lubricated with this mixture can make 80 miles without the necessity of renewing the grease.

II

Mix equal parts of red American rosin, melted tallow, linseed oil, and caustic soda lye (of 1.5 density).

III

Melt 20 parts of rosin oil in 50 parts of yellow palm oil, saponify this with 25 parts of caustic soda lye of 15° Be., and add 25 parts of mineral oil or paraffine.

IV

Mix residue of the distillation of petroleum, 60 to 80 parts; tallow, 10 parts; colophony, 10 parts; and caustic soda solution of 40° Be., 15 parts.

A Grease for Locomotive Axles

Saponify a mixture of 50 parts tallow, 28 parts palm oil, 2 parts sperm oil. Mix in soda lye made by dissolving 12 parts of soda in 137 parts of water.