I

The following composition is recommended for bronzing metal objects exposed to the air: Mix about equal parts of siccative, rectified oil of turpentine, caoutchouc oil, and dammar varnish, and apply this composition on the objects, using a brush. This bronze has been found to resist the influences of the weather.

II

Cover the objects with a light layer of linseed oil, and then heat over a coal fire, prolonging the heat until the desired shade is reached.

III

Expose the objects to be bronzed for about 5 minutes to the vapors of a bath composed of 50 parts of nitric acid and 50 parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Then rub the articles with vaseline and heat until the vaseline is decomposed. The objects to be bronzed must always be perfectly polished.

IV

To bronze iron articles they should be laid in highly heated coal dust; the articles must be covered up in the glowing dust, and the heat must be the same throughout. The iron turns at first yellow, then blue, and finally rather black. Withdraw the objects when they have attained the blue shade or the black color; then while they are still hot, rub them with a wad charged with tallow.

V

For electrolytic bronzing of metals the baths employed differ from the brass baths only in that they contain tin in solution instead of zinc. According to Eisner, dissolve 70 parts, by weight, of cupric sulphate in 1,000 parts of water and add a solution of 8 parts of stannic chloride in caustic lye. For a positive pole plate put in a bronze plate. The bath works at ordinary temperature.

VI

A good bath consists of 10 parts of potash, 2 parts of cupric chloride, 1 part of tin salt, 1 part of cyanide of potassium dissolved in 100 parts of water.

VII

Mix a solution of 32 parts of copper sulphate in 500 parts of water with 64 parts of cyanide of potassium. After the solution has become clear, add 4 to 5 parts of stannic chloride dissolved in potash lye.

VIII

Precipitate all soda from a solution of blue vitriol by phosphate of sodium, wash the precipitate well, and dissolve in a concentrated solution of pyrophosphate of copper. Also, saturate a solution of the same salt with tin salt. Of both solutions add enough in such proportion to a solution of 50 parts, by weight, of pyrophosphate of sodium in 1,000 parts of water until the solution appears clear and of the desired color. A cast bronze plate serves as an anode. From time to time a little soda, or if the precipitate turns out too pale, copper solution should be added.

Tin Bronzing

The pieces are well washed and all grease removed; next plunged into a solution of copperas (green vitriol), 1 part; sulphate, 1 part; water, 20 parts. When dry they are plunged again into a bath composed of verdigris, 4 parts; dissolved in distilled wine vinegar, 11 parts. Wash, dry, and polish with English red.

Zinc Bronzing

The zinc article must be first electro-coppered before proceeding to the bronzing. The process used is always the same; the different shades are, however, too numerous to cover all of them in one explanation. The bronzing of zinc clocks is most frequently done on a brown ground, by mixing graphite, lampblack, and sanguine stirred in water in which a little Flanders Dutch glue is dissolved. The application is made by means of a brush. When it is dry a spirit varnish is applied; next, before the varnish is perfectly dry, a little powdered bronze or sanguine or powdered bronze mixed with sanguine or with graphite, according to the desired shades. For green bronze, mix green sanders with chrome yellow stirred with spirit in which a little varnish is put. When the bronzing is dry, put on the varnish and the powdered bronze as above described. After all has dried, pass the brush over a piece of wax, then over the bronzed article, being careful to charge the brush frequently with wax.