I

(a) Brown bronze: Acid solution of nitrate of silver and bismuth or nitric acid. (6) Light bronze: Acid solution of nitrate of silver and of copper. (c) Black: Solution of nitrate of copper. In all cases, however, the brass is colored black, if after having been treated with the acid solution, it is placed for a very short time in a solution of potassium sulphide, of ammonium sulphydrate, or of hydrogen sulphide.

II

The brass is immersed in a dilute solution of mercurous nitrate; the layer of mercury formed on the brass is converted into black sulphide, if washed several times in potassium sulphide. By substituting for the potassium sulphide the sulphide of antimony or that of arsenic, beautiful bronze colors are obtained, varying from light brown to dark brown.

III

Clean the brass perfectly. Afterwards rub with sal ammoniac dissolved in vinegar. Strong vinegar, 1,000 parts; sal ammoniac, 30 parts; alum, 15 parts; arsenious anhydride, 8 parts.

IV

A solution of chloride of platinum is employed, which leaves a very light coating of platinum on the metal, and the surface is bronzed. A steel tint or gray color is obtained, of which the shade depends on the metal. If this is burnished, it takes a blue or steel gray shade, which varies with the duration of the chemical action, the concentration, and the temperature of the bath. A dilute solution of platinum is prepared thus: Chloride of platinum, 1 part; water, 5,000 parts.

Another solution, more concentrated at the temperature of 104° F., is kept ready. The objects to be bronzed are attached to a copper wire and immersed for a few seconds in a hot solution of tartar, 30 parts to 5,000 parts of water. On coming from this bath they are washed 2 or 3 times with ordinary water, and a last time with distilled water, and then put in the solution of platinum chloride, stirring them from time to time. When a suitable change of color has been secured, the objects are passed to the concentrated solution of platinum chloride (40°). They are stirred, and taken out when the wished-for color has been reached. They are then washed 2 or 3 times, and dried in wood sawdust.

V

To give to brass a dull black color, as that used for optical instruments, the metal is cleaned carefully at first, and covered with a very dilute mixture of neutral nitrate of tin, 1 part; chloride of gold, 2 parts. At the end of 10 minutes this covering is removed with a moist brush. If an excess of acid has not been employed, the surface of the metal will be found to be of a fine dull black.

The nitrate of tin is prepared by decomposing the chloride of this metal with ammonia and afterwards dissolving in nitric acid the oxide of tin formed.

VI

For obtaining a deposit of bismuth the brass is immersed in a boiling bath, prepared by adding 50 to 60 parts of bismuth to nitric acid diluted with 1,000 parts of water, and containing 32 parts of tartaric acid.

VII

The electrolysis of a cold solution of 25 to 30 parts per 1,000 parts of the double chloride of bismuth and ammonium produces on brass or on copper a brilliant adherent deposit of bismuth, whose appearance resembles that of old silver.