Place 3 pounds of crushed sugar in a kettle with 1 pint of water, and heat. The sugar will at first dissolve, but as the water evaporates a solid mass will be formed. This must be broken up.

Continue to heat, with constant stirring, until the mass has again become liquefied. Keep on a slow fire until the mass becomes very dark; then remove the kettle from the fire and pour in slowly 3 pints of boiling water. Set the kettle back on the fire and permit contents to boil for a short time, then remove, and cool. Add simple syrup to produce any required consistency.



Indigo carmine...... 1 part

Water.............. 20 parts

Indigo carmine may usually be obtained commercially;


Tincture of indigo also makes a harmless blue.

Sap Blue

Dark blue...........     3 parts

Grape sugar........     1 part

Water..............     6 parts


The addition of indigo-carmine solution to any yellow solution will give various shades of green. Indigo carmine added to a mixture of tincture of crocus and glycerine will give a fine green color. A solution of commercial chlorophyll yields grass-green shades.



Carmine............ 1 part

Liquor potasssę...... 6 parts

Rose water to make.. 48 parts Mix. If the color is too high, dilute with distilled water until the required tint is obtained.


Soak red-apple parings in California brandy. The addition of rose leaves makes a fine flavoring as well as coloring agent.


Carmine, No. 40 .... 1 part

Strong ammonia

water............ 4 parts

Distilled water to make 24 parts Rub up the carmine and ammonia water and to the solution add the water under trituration. If, in standing, this shows a tendency to separate, a drop or two of water of ammonia will correct the trouble. This statement should be put on the label of the bottle as the volatile ammonia soon escapes even in glass-stoppered vials. Various shades of red may be obtained by using fruit juices, such as black cherry, raspberry, etc., and also the tinctures of sudbear, alkanet, red saunders, erythroxylon, etc.


Tincture of red sandalwood ............. 1 part

Ethereal tincture of Orlean, q. s.

Add the orlean tincture to the sandalwood gradually until the desired tint is obtained. A red color added to a yellow one gives am orange color.


A mixture of tincture of indigo, or a solution of indigo carmine, added to cochineal red gives a fine purple.


Various shades of yellow may be obtained by the maceration of saffron or turmeric in alcohol until a strong tincture is obtained. Dilute with water until the desired tint is reached.


See Tables.