Water is free from air only when it has been maintained for several minutes in bubbling ebullition. In order to keep out the air from the bottle, when using the contents, the air-pressure contrivances are very convenient; one glass tube reaching through the rubber stopper into the bottle to the bottom, while the second tube, provided with a rubber pressing-ball, only runs into the flask above. If the long bent tube is fitted with a rubber tube, a single pressure suffices to draw off the desired quantity of the developer. It is still more convenient to pour a thin layer of good sweet oil on top of the developer besides. The developer is not injured thereby, and the exclusion of air is perfect.