I

A varnish obtained by dissolving wax in turpentine is useful. It gives a fairly hard coat, but has the drawback of filling up fine grooves, and so injuring the appearance of many metal ornaments.

II

Shellac, 15 pounds; Siam benjamin, 13 pounds; alcohol, 80 pounds; formylchloride, 20 pounds. III.—Sierra Leone copal, 6 pounds; dammar, 18 pounds; oleic acid, 3 pounds; alcohol, 40 pounds; oil of turpentine, 20 pounds; formylchloride, 15 pounds. The formylchloride not only effects the rapid drying necessary to prevent the varnish gravitating into hollows, but enables the alcohol to make a perfect solution of the rosin. The varnishes are excessively volatile, and must be stored accordingly.