It must not be expected that the formulas given will produce the exact effect desired, because the strength of the various brands of colors vary to a great extent, and therefore the painter must exercise his own judgment. The table simply gives an idea of what can be produced by following the formulas given, when chemically pure material is employed in the mixing. It is also recommended that the parts mentioned be weighed out in paste form, and the white or black and each color separately thinned and strained before mixing them together, because the arriving at the proper hue of color or depth and tone of tint will be simplified by using that precaution. By thinning it is not meant that they should be quite ready for application, but of such consistency that they will pass an ordinary strainer with the aid of a brush.

Unless otherwise indicated, the materials are understood to be ground fine in paste form.

Note

The majority of the following are by Joseph Griggs, in the Painters' Magazine:

Grounds For Graining Colors

Ash Ground

Four hundred parts white lead; 4 parts French ocher; 1 part raw Turkey umber.

Ash

Raw umber; raw sienna; and a little black or Vandyke brown.

Hungarian Ash

Raw sienna and raw and burnt umber.

Bun Ash

Raw sienna; burnt umber; and Vandyke brown.

Cherry Ground

One hundred parts white lead; 5 parts burnt sienna; 1 part raw sienna.

Natural Cherry

Raw and burnt sienna and raw umber.

Stained Cherry

Burnt sienna; burnt umber; and Vandyke brown.

Chestnut

Raw sienna; burnt umber; Vandyke brown; and a little burnt sienna.

Maple

Raw sienna and raw umber.

Silver Maple

Ivory black over a nearly white ground.

Light Maple Ground

One hundred parts white lead; 1 part French ocher.

Dark Maple Ground

One hundred parts white lead; 1 part dark golden ocher.

Oak

Raw sienna; burnt umber; a little black.

Pollard Oak

Raw and burnt sienna, or burnt umber and Vandyke brown.

Light Oak Ground

Fifty parts white lead; 1 part French ocher.

Dark Oak Ground

Fifty parts white lead; 1 part dark golden ocher.

Satinwood

Add a little ivory black to maple color.

Mahogany

Burnt sienna; burnt umber; and Vandyke brown.

Mahogany Ground

Ten parts white lead; 5 parts orange chrome; and 1 part burnt sienna.

Rosewood

Vandyke brown and a little ivory black.

Rosewood Ground

Drop black.

Walnut Ground

Fifty parts white lead; 3 parts dark golden ocher; 1 part dark Venetian red; and 1 part drop black.

Black Walnut

Burnt umber with a little Vandyke brown for dark parts.

French Burl Walnut

Same as black walnut.

Hard Pine

Raw and burnt sienna; add a little burnt umber.

Cypress

Raw and burnt sienna, and burnt umber.

Whitewood

Ground same as for light ash; graining color, yellow ocher, adding raw umber and black for dark streaks.