Soft toilet soaps or creams may be prepared from fresh lard with a small addition of cocoanut oil and caustic potash solution, by the cold process or by boiling. For the cold process, 23 parts of fresh lard and 2 parts of Cochin cocoanut oil are warmed in a jacketed pan, and when the temperature reaches 113° F. are treated with 9 parts of caustic potash and 2.5 parts of caustic soda solution, both of 38° Be. strength, the whole being stirred until saponification is complete. The soap is transferred to a large marble mortar and pounded along with the following scenting ingredients: 0.15 parts of oil of bitter almonds and 0.02 parts of oil of geranium rose, or 0.1 part of the latter, and 0.05 parts of lemon oil. The warm process is preferable, experience having shown that boiling is essential to the proper saponification of the fats. In this method, 80 parts of lard and 20 parts of Cochin cocoanut oil are melted together in a large pan, 100 parts of potash lye (20° Bé.) being then crutched in by degrees, and the mass raised to boiling point. The combined influence of the heat and crutching vaporizes part of the water in the lye, and the soap thickens. When the soap has combined, the fire is made up, and another 80 parts of the same potash lye are crutched in gradually. The soap gets thicker and thicker as the water is expelled and finally throws up "roses" on the surface, indicating that it is nearly finished. At this stage it must be crutched vigorously, to prevent scorching against the bottom of the pan and the resulting more or less dark coloration. The evaporation period may be shortened by using only 50 to 60 parts of lye at first, and fitting with lye of 25° to 30° strength. For working on the large scale iron pans heated by steam are used, a few makers employing silver-lined vessels, which have the advantage that they are not attacked by the alkali. Tinned copper pans are also useful. The process takes from 7 to 8 hours, and when the soap is finished it is transferred into stoneware vessels for storage. Clear vegetable oils (castor oil) may be used, but the soaps lack the requisite nacreous luster required.