This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
A balance spring may need weakening; this is effected by grinding the spring thinner. Remove the spring from the collet and place it upon a piece of pegwood cut to fit the center coil. A piece of soft iron wire, flattened so as to pass freely between the coils and charged with a little powdered oilstone, will serve as a grinder, and with it the strength of the spring may soon be reduced. Operations will be confined to the center coil, for no other part of the spring will rest sufficiently against the wood to enable it to be ground, but this will generally suffice. The effect will be rather rapid; therefore care should be taken or the spring may be made too weak.
Pry the plates apart on the striking side, slip the pivots of the upper wheels out, and having disconnected them from the train, turn them partly around and put them back. If still incorrect, repeat the experiment. A few efforts at most will get them to work properly. The sound in cuckoo clocks is caused by a wire acting on a small bellows which is connected with two small pipes like organ pipes.
One coat of asphaltum varnish will make old rusty hands look as good as new, and will dry in a few minutes.
Put a little oil around the screw; heat the head lightly by means of a red-hot iron rod, applying the same for 2 or 3 minutes. The rusty screw may then be removed as easily as though it had just been put in.
Gilding Watch Movements. (See also Gilding.)—In gilding watch movements, the greatest care must be observed with regard to cleanliness. The work is first to be placed into a weak solution of caustic potash for a few minutes, and then rinsed in cold water. The movements are now to be dipped into pickling acid (nitrous acid) for an instant, and then plunged immediately into cold water. After being finally rinsed in hot water, they may be placed in the gilding bath and allowed to remain therein until they have received the required coating. A few seconds will generally be sufficient, as this class of work does not require to be very strongly gilt. When gilt, the movements are to be rinsed in warm water, and scratch-brushed; they may then be returned to the bath, for an instant, to give them a good color. Lastly, rinse in hot water and place the movements in clean box sawdust. An economical mode of gilding watch movements is to employ a copper anode—working from the solution, add 10 parts of cream of tartar and a corresponding quantity of elutriated chalk to obtain a pulp that can be put on with the brush. The gilding or silvering obtained in this manner is pretty, but of slight durability. At the present time this method is only seldom employed, since the electroplating affords a means of producing gilding and silvering in a handsome and comparatively cheap manner, the metallic coating having to be but very thin. Gold and silver for this kind of work are used in the form of potassium cyanide of gold or potassium cyanide of silver solutions, it being a custom to copper the zinc articles previously by the aid of a battery, since the appearance will then be much handsomer than on zinc alone. Gilding or silvering with leaf metal is done by polishing the surface of the zinc bright and coating it with a very tough linseed-oil varnish diluted with 10 times the quantity of benzol. The metallic leaf is then laid on and polished with an agate.
WATCHMAKERS' CLEANING PREPARATIONS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.
WATCH MOVEMENTS, PALLADIUM PLATING OF: See Plating.