[L. candela, a (white) light made of wax or tallow ; from candere, to be white.] A twist of threads surrounded by tallow or wax which gives light when lit. Common candles are made of tallow. Lumps of fat from sheep or cattle are first melted in large pans, and then boiled with water. From the fat or tallow so obtained we can make the candles called "dips," by dipping skeins of cotton (wicks) into the melted tallow. The candles called "moulds " are made by running the tallow into metal tubes, the wick having been first stretched down the middle of the tube. Wax candles are made from the wax produced by bees. Stearin candles are madefrom a hard kind of fat called stearin, which can be extracted from tallow. Composite candles consist of a mixture of tallow and stearin. Paraffin candles are made of solid paraffin, which, like paraffin oil, is prepared from a mineral sub-stance that oozes out of or can be obtained by heating certain rocks called bituminous shales. (See Smelt.)