Old trees which are past growing should be taken up by the roots, and young ones planted in their stead. This is, in most places, a tedious operation, though in some counties a machine is employed for this purpose, which considerably facilitates the labour and lessens the expence of removing the roots. It consists of an iron hook, about two feet and a half long, with a large iron ring affixed to its handle. The ground about the root being cleared away, and the straggling horizontal roots cut off, the point of the hook is fastened to some part of the stump; and a long lever of sufficient strength placed through the ring. Thus arranged, two men at the extremity of the lever force it in every direction, till the root is torn out, twisting off the tap-roots at some distance under ground.
This method appears to be very effectual in stubbing up the roots of underwood ; but, when those of very large trees are to be extracted, it will be advisable previously to cleave them with wedges into several parts, and then to take them up separately. - see also Berne-MACHINE : vol. i. p. 253.