Berne-Machine, an engine for rooting up trees, invented by P. Sommer, a native of Berne, in Switzerland.
This machine consists of three principal parts : the beam, the ram, and the lever. The beam is composed of two planks of o:'.k, three inches thick, and separated by two transverse pieces of the same wood, of an equal thickness. These planks are perforated with holes to receive iron pins, upon which the lever ads between the two sides of the beam, and is shifted higher as the tree is raised out of its place. The sides are secured at the top and bottom by strong iron hoops. The pins should be an inch and a quarter, and the holes through which they pass, an inch and a half in diameter. When the machine is in action, the bottom of the beam is secured by stakes driven into the earth. The ram, which is made of oak, elm, or some other strong wood, is capped with three strong iron spikes, which take fast hold of the tree. This ram is six or eight inches square; and an incision is made longitudinally through its middle, from the lower end to the first ferule, in order to allow room for the chain to play round the pulley, which should be four inches thick, and nine inches in diameter. The ram is raised by means of the chain, which should be about ten feet long, with links four, inches and three quarters in length, and one inch thick. One end of this chain is fastened to the top of the beam, while the other, alter having passed through the lower part of the ram, and over the pulley, terminates in a ring or link, the two ears of which serve to keep it in a true position between the two planks of the beam. The hook, which should be made of very tough iron, is inserted in this ring; and the handle ought to be two inches thick where it joins to the hook, and gradually lessen in thickness up to the arch, which should be about half an inch in diameter. On each side of the upper pin is a semi-circular notch, which rests alternately on the pins, when the machine is worked. The hole and arch serve to fix a long lever of wood, by means of two iron pins, and thus it is raised or lowered at pleasure, in order to render the working of the machine easy, in whatever part of the beam it may be placed ; for, without this contrivance, the extremity of the lever would, when the handle is near the top of the beam, be higher than men standing upon the ground could reach.
This machine is worked in the following manner : it is placed against a tree, and the end of the. beam supported by stakes. The iron handle is placed in the opening between the two planks of the beam, and the wooden lever fixed to it, by means of the iron pins. The hook takes hold of the chain, and one of the iron pins is thrust into the outer row of holes, by which menus the exterior notch will rest on the pin, which will be the centre of motion ;; and the end of the lever being pressed downwards, the other notch wiil be raised, at the same time the chain, and consequently the ram. Afterwards, the other iron pin is to be put into the hole in the inner row, above that which was before the centre of motion, and the end of the lever elevated or pushed upwards, the latter pin on which the notch rests then becoming the centre of motion. By this alternate motion of the lever, and shifting the pins, the chain is drawn up-wards over the pulley, and consequently the whole force of the engine exerted against the tree. There is a small wheel joined to the end of the ram opposite the pulley, in order to lessen the friction of that part of the machine.
From this account, the reader will perceive that the machine is a single pulley, compounded with a lever of the first and second order. As the push of the engine is given in an oblique direction, it will exert a greater or less force against the horizontal roots of the tree, in proportion to the angle formed by the machine with the plane of the horizon ; and the angle of 45° is the maximum, or that when the ma-chine will exert its greatest force against the horizontal root6 of the tree.