are now greatly reduced in numbers. In the Austrian mountains, where they have been better preserved, it is not uncommon to see bands of 20 or 30 individuals. The agility and climbing powers of the

chamois are famous; its foot is especially well formed for laying hold of slight projections on the rocks. The outer margin of the solid hoof is lower than the sole, forming a shallow depression. In summer chamois ascend to the limits of the snow-line ; in winter they descend to the wooded districts that border the glaciers. They do not hesitate to spring over chasms nor to leap downward 20 or 30 feet against the rocky face of an apparently perpendicular precipice. The fine soft leather known as Shammy was originally made from chamois-skin, though many of the skins now sold under that name are manufactured from sheep-skin. The flesh is prized as food, and resembles venison in flavor.

Chamouni ( sha'mô'nc' ), a celebrated valley among the French Alps, is about 3,400 feet above the level of the sea. It is about 13 miles long and two broad. On the south is the giant group of Mont Blanc, from which great glaciers glide down, even in summer, almost to the bottom of the valley. The chief of these is the Glacier des Bois, which in its upper course expands into a large mountain lake of ice, called the ikfer de Glace. Over 15,000 tourists visit the valley every year, and from this point Mont Blanc is usually ascended. The beauties of Chamouni have been written of by Byron, Coleridge, Shelley, Wordsworth, Lamartine and Ruskin.

Champagne and The American Wine Industry. Great strides have of recent years been made in the production and improved quality of the wines of the United States, with the gratifying result that they have largely supplanted the importation and use of the product of the foreign-grown grape. The total yield of the native wine has now risen to close upon forty million

gallons per year. The region of its chief cultivation is still California; though production has of late largely risen in the states of New York and Ohio as well as in several of the western and southern states. The superior quality of the native wine has now become a matter of national and local felicitation, which is evidenced by the fact that it is increasingly rivalling the imported vintages of the Old World. Of sparkling wines there has been a great increase in Californian production, especially in the last 10 or 12 years, both the soil and the climate of the state, over a large area, favoring the vineyard yield and that to well-nigh perfection. There the manufacture of champagne is now a great and remunerative industry, while it is increasingly satisfactory to the taste of wine connoisseurs. At Urbana and Rheims, N. Y., as well as at Brockton and Ripley in the same state, and at Erie, Pa., Sandusky and Toledo, O. and on Lake Erie Island there are also successful winemaking establishments, their collective output annually being large and constantly increasing in yield and in improved brands.

Champaign (shăm-păn'), a city in Champaign County, 111., 128 miles south of Chicago. It has the service of the Illinois Central, the "Big Pour" and several other railroads. It is situated in a rich agricultural region, and has foundries, machine-shops and a number of manufacturing interests. Located here is the Burnham Athenaeum and Hospital. The cities of Urbana and Champaign join, and they have electric service. The University of Illinois is located between Champaign and Urbana. Population, 12,421.

Champ=de=Mars (shon'de-marz'), a large square on the outskirts of Paris, where military reviews are held. The first great feast of the Revolution was held here on July 14, 1790. At that time the place was not ready, and all Paris, men and women, turned out and worked night and day to put it in" readiness. It has been used for fairs, feasts, great mass meetings and demonstrations of mobs.

Champlain (shăm-plan'), a beautiful lake separating the states of New York and Vermont. It is no miles long and from one to 15 broad. It empties into the St. Lawrence through the Richelieu River, and a canal joins it to the Hudson. Here the Americans defeated the British in a naval battle in 1814. The lake is named from its discoverer, Samuel de Champlain.

Champlain, Samuel de ( 1567-1635). Of the most striking figure, perhaps, in Canadian history during the French régime, Sir John Bourinot says: "It was not in Acadia but in the valley of the St. Lawrence that France made her great effort to establish her dominions in North America. Samuel Champlain, the most famovis man in the history

Description images/pp0405 1