locusts, and a poison-mash has proved effective in some instances. See Cicada and Grasshoppers. Consult Sanderson : Insects Injurious to Staple Crops.

Lo'cust, a North American species of trees and shrubs, sometimes called the acacia, belonging to the pea family. The common locust grows sometimes 70 or 80 feet high, with a rough bark, fine leaves and white, very fragrant flowers, honey-sweet, hanging in long, loose clusters. It is a slender tree, has leaflets that are long and rounded, growing in graceful sprays. The blossoms are seen in May and June; the fruit is a smooth, flat, purple-brown pod, ripe in September, hanging on the trees all winter. It is a rapid grower, and the hardness and durability of the wood make it a valuable tree for timber; the wood is yellowish in color, with a smooth grain; it is used for posts and in exterior construction. Its great enemy is the borer, which sometimes destroys the trees of a large region. The honey-locust, with pink flowers, the carob-tree on Mediterranean shores and the locust of the West Indies are other trees bearing the name.

Locy, William A., an American zoologist, was born at Detroit, Mich., Sept. 14, 1857. He graduated at the University of Michigan in 1881, and spent a year in graduate study there and another at Harvard University. In 1887 he was made professor of biology in Lake Forest College, and in 1891 was elected professor of physiology in Rush Medical College, retaining both chairs. He was sent to Europe to inspect laboratories and purchase instruments, and while there carried on work under professors at the University of Berlin. He resigned at Rush on account of ill-health, and in 1896 took the chair of zoology at Northwestern University. He has contributed treatises to periodicals of science in Germany and the United States.

Lodge, Henry Cabot, an American statesman and author, was born at Boston, Mass.,

May 12, 1850. He was educated at Harvard University, where he graduated i n 1871, and finished the course in the law-school in 1875. The next year he was admitted to the Suffolk bar. He served two terms in the state legislature, then was elected as Republican representative to the 50th,51st ands2d

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Congresses. Though serving ably and industriously as representative and as member of the committee on naval affairs and on the election of president and vice-president, he is best known for his literary attainments. Since 1893 he has been a United States senator. He is distinguished as a writer on economic, financial and historical subjects. Among his works are A Short History of the English Colonies in North America, Life of Hamilton, Life of Webster, Life of Washington, The Story of the American Revolution and Hero-Tales from American History.

Lodge, Sir Oliver Joseph, principal of Birmingham University, was born in 1851 in Staffordshire, England, and educated at University College, London, graduating in 1877 as doctor of science at London University. An original thinker, he was a pioneer of wireless telegraphy; inventor of machinery for dispelling fog; and prominent in psychical research, with a profound faith in the ultimate unity of science and religion. Has done much to the rebirth of religion in the spirit of modern criticism and scientific knowledge. On incarnation with pre-existence; revelation or discovery; and continuity and continuing influence he declares that the utterance of science is not negative, and he has recently emphasized the four great topics of oneness, persistence, evolution and control. His writings embrace Modem Views of Electricity, Pioneers of Science, Signaling Across Space Without Wires, Lightning Conductors and Lightning Guards, Electrons (recent discoveries in electricity) ; School Teaching and School Reform; and Life and Matter, a criticism of Haeckel's Riddle of Existence. Sir Oliver, for his numerous articles on electrical science, was in 1898 awarded the Rumford medal by the English Royal Society, and four years later was knighted.

Lodi (lo'd), a town in northern Italy, on Adda River, 18 miles southeast of Milan. It has a Gothic cathedral dating from the 12th century; manufactures of linens, silks and majolica ware; and a great trade in cheese and wine. It is best known as the place in the vicinity of which, May 10, 1796, Bonaparte forced the long and narrow bridge in . face of the Austrian batteries. Population 20,000.

Lodz (lodz), sometimes called the Manchester of Poland, is situated 76 miles southwest of Warsaw, and is the most populous city in Poland, except Warsaw. Its rapid growth is the result of its numerous cotton and woolen manufactories, of which there are more than 120. Population 355,ooo.

Lofoten or Lofoden (lo fo'ten) Islands, a chain on the northwestern coast of Norway, stretching 150 miles with an area of 2,247 square miles. All are rugged and mountainous, many of the summits being crater-shaped. The highest ooiat is 3.090 feet