This page of the book is from "The New Student's Reference Work: Volume 2" by Chandler B. Beach, Frank Morton McMurry and others.
high. Vast schools of codfish visit these waters annually from January to March. The fishing is attended with danger, on account of the sudden storms from the west and the strong currents which set in between the islands. Their famous maelstrom is the result of a strong current rushing in and out of a great fiord between Norway and these islands. Owing to the Gulf Stream the winters are mild, grass grows abundantly, and sheep-farming is carried on. The permanent population numbers 36,000.
Log is the instrument by which a ship's rate of motion in the water is measured. In its oldest and simplest form it is a piece of teakwood, in shape one fourth of a disk, called a log-ship, loaded on the curved edge so as to float point upward. Every hour or two hours it is thrown overboard for 28 seconds, or, if the ship is going very fast, for 14 seconds. It is attached to a line called the log-line. The supposition is that, when thrown into the sea, it will remain stationary while the log-line is freely paid out from a reel held by hand on board. This log-line is divided into equal sections by knots or strips of leather, each section being that part of a geographical mile which 28 seconds are of an hour; so that the number of sections of the log-line which run out during 28 seconds is the same as the number of miles which the ship is going per hour at the time. The method is inaccurate, because in some motions of the sea the log will not remain stationary even 14 seconds. The log-book is a book containing account of courses steered, the state of the weather, employment of crew and like matters. This book becomes the diary of the ship. There also is the official log-book issued by the board of trade at the beginning of a voyage, and returned at its end. This book contains a record of the crew, offenses, desertions, sickness and the like. It is a civil record of the voyage.
Lo'gan, the name of a chief of the Cayuga Indians, who lived on the Susquehanna River and was born about 1725. The name was taken from James Logan, a prominent citizen of Pennsylvania. In early life Logan was friendly to the whites, but after the murder of his family he began a war, in which for 'several months great cruelties were inflicted on the settlers. When the Indians were finally defeated at the mouth of the Great Kanawha in Virginia, Logan sent the governor this message: "I appeal to any white man to say if he ever entered Logan's cabin hungry and he gave him not meat; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. My countrymen pointed as they passed, and said : ' Logan is the friend of the white man.' But now there runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me for revenge." He grew very intemperate, and in a drunken frenzy knocked
JOHN A. LOGAN
down his wife and fled, supposing her dead. Meeting a party of Indians, he thought they meant to attack him, and he turned upon them, when they killed him in self-defense, near Detroit, in 1780.
Logan, John Alexander, American general and statesman, son of Dr. John Logan, an Irish physician, was born in Jackson County, 111., Feb. 9, 1826. As a boy his s c h ool- advantages were meager. He served in the Mexican War, was promoted to a lieutenancy, and became adjutant of the regi-ment. After a course in Louisville Law School, he formed a partnership with his uncle. In 1852 he was elected to the legislature and re-elect-ed in 1853 and in 1854. He was elected to Congress in 1858 as a Democrat and again in i860. He was at Washington attending the extra session of 1861 when the first advance on Bull Run occurred.
The nearness of the conflict was too much for his martial spirit. He left his seat, entered the ranks of a Michigan regiment, and took part in the battle of July 21. Resigning his seat, he raised the 31st regiment of Illinois volunteers (1861) of wnich he was chosen colonel. Soon afterward he became conspicuous in the battle of Belmont, where he led the charge which broke the enemy's line. For bravery at Fort Donelson, where he was severely wounded, he was promoted to be a brigadier-general, March 5, 1862. For skill and bravery at the siege of Corinth and in Grant's campaign in Mississippi, he was appointed a major-general, Nov. 29, 1862. Placed in command of the 3d division, 17th army-corps, he bore a distinguished part in the Vicksburg campaign, exhibiting the qualities of an able leader and winning renown for personal bravery, especially at Raymond, May 12, and at Champion's Hill, May 11, 1863. At the siege of Vicksburg he was in command of the center, and led the column which took possession of the city on July 4. He succeeded to the command of the 15th 'army-corps, and took part in every battle of Sherman's memorable and bloody campaign from Missionary Ridge to Atlanta. When McPherson fell at Atlanta, Logan took his place in command of the army of the Tennessee. In the autumn of 1864 he returned to Illinois and took part in the presidential campaign, making many speeches for Lincoln in the western