LOGAN                                                              I IOC                                                       LOMBARDS

states. He rejoined his command at Savannah in January, 1865, marched through the Carolinas with Sherman, and took part in the last battle of the war at Bentonville. He succeeded General Howard in command of the army of the Tennessee in May, 1865. In August he resigned from the army, with a glowing record as an able general, inspiring leader and hard fighter. Returning to his state, he at once became prominent in politics as a Republican leader. He was elected to Congress in 1866, 1868 and 1870. In 1871 he was elected to the United States senate, m 187g and in 1885. He took a prominent and influential part in the legislation relating to the reconstruction of the south, and from his activity in promoting measures for the benefit of the soldiers came to be regarded by them as their special champion and friend. In 1884 he was nominated for vice-president on the ticket with James G. Blaine, but was defeated. He was one of the founders of the Grand Army of the Republic, and its first national commander. He also first instituted Memorial Day, which is now observed as a national holiday on May 30th every year. He published The Great Conspiracy in 1886, and his Volunteer Soldier of America appeared after his death, which occurred at Washington, D. C, Dec. 26, 1886. See Life by Dawson.

Lo'gan, Major John A., son of the above, was born in Illinois on July 24, 1865,served in Cuba and in the Philippines, where he was killed in an engagement with the insurgents at San Jacinto, Nov. 12, 1899.

Logans. See Rocking-Stones.

Lo'gansport, county-seat of Cass County, Ind., lies 75 miles northwest of Indianapolis, at the crossing of three railroads, where Eel River joins the Wabash. There are extensive railroad shops, besides flour and lumber mills and foundries, and the town has a large shipping-trade in grain, pork etc. Population 19,050.

Logic {loj'tk), plainly defined, is the science of reasoning or that specific course of connected argument by which a conclusion is reached. Socrates first devoted part of his writings to a generalized idea of the art; but Aristotle, in some of his works, reduced it to a science, and the rules laid down by him survive to the present day, only modified from the pure or formal logic of the ancients by the addition of what is called mixed or material logic, treating of facts but not of the course by which such facts are reached. Formal logic, complete, regards thought, not as an expression of the existence of matter or the truth of a statement, but as a series of operations which, if strictly and properly followed out, produce an end consistent with the beginning. Technically, a proposition in logic is divided into three parts — the term or notion, the judgment or proposition and the reasoning or cyllogism. The first is merely in the

nature of a definition of the subject-matter; the second, the process or opinion by which it becomes worthy or capable of allowing argument; and the last, the argument. Among modern writers Bacon is said to be the founder of mixed or inductive logic, and his theories received much development and broader treatment at the hands of John Stuart Mill. Broadly, the branches differ in that pure logic allows argument from an established whole, and inductive logic argues to build the whole. See Jevons' Logic.

Log'wood, a tree which is a native of Mexico and Central America. It has also been naturalized in some of the West Indies. The sap-wood is useless, and is hewn off with the bark. The heart-wood is slightly heavier than water, hard and coarsegrained. Extracts of this heart are made for dyeing purposes. Logwood, although itself a dark red, does not produce red colors, but shades of purple, blue and gray, which are not permanent unless fixed with what is called a mordant, a material for setting the color. Its most important application is for dyeing black and in making ink.

Lohengrin (lō'ĕn-grín), the hero of an old German poem. He was a knight of the Grail, the son of Parzival, taken at King Arthur's command by a swan through the air to Mayence, ( or to Antwerp as some authorities say), where he fought for Eisa, daughter of the duke of Brabant, overthrew her persecutor and married the lady. On his return from warring against the Saracens, Eisa, contrary to his prohibition, persisted in asking him about his origin. He yielded to her curiosity, and was at once carried back to the Grail. Wagner made the legend the subject of his great opera of Lohengrin.

Loire ( Iwar ) River, the largest river of France. It rises in the Cevennes at an elevation of 4,511 feet, and empties into the Bay of Biscay. It is 620 miles long, and navigable for 550 miles. It rises and falls with the tide as far as Nantes. It is connected with the Seine, the Saône and the harbor of Brest by canals, and is noted for its destructive floods, though the lower parts are protected by dikes 20 feet in height. See The Seine and the Loire, with illustrations by Turner.

Lol'lards, a sect that originated at Antwerp in 1300; a term of reproach or ridicule. Their mission was to furnish care and ministration to the sick. The name was afterwards given to the followers of Wiclif in England and Scotland, who were most cruelly persecuted in the reigns of Henry IV and Henry V in England and a little later in Scotland. They survived till the iŏth century Reformation, and were one of the reasons why it succeeded with the plain people of England and Scotland

Lom'bards were a people of Germanic descent. The name (from Longobardi) is