McCUTCHEON                                           "34                                             MACDONALD

of Dr. McCosh are marked by keen insight as well as clearness of statement; he belongs to the Scottish or "common-sense" school of philosophy. Among the most important of his works are The Methods of Divine Government; Typical Forms and Special Ends in Creation; Intuitions of the Mind; Examination of Mill's Philosophy; Laws of Discursive Thought; Logic; Christianity and Positivism; Scottish Philosophy; and papers on education and the relation of science to religion. In 1888 he resigned to give his attention more closely to philosophical writing, and published First and Fundamental Truths and Religious Aspects of Evolution. He died on Nov. 16, 1894.

McCut'cheon, Qeorge Barr, an American writer whose short stories in many magazines have made him widely known, was born in i860 in Indiana. After a boyhood on a farm, than which there would seem to be no better preparation for an active and busy life, he attended Purdue University, and afterwards was a reporter and editor. He is the author of a few novels as well as innumerable short stories. The novels include Graustark, Castle Craney-crow, The Sherrods and Nedra.

Macdonald (măk-dō-nåV'), Etienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre, Marshal of France, was born on Nov. 17, 1765, at Sancerre. He entered the army in 1784, and became a general in 1795, after having distinguished himself at Jemappes and also by crossing the Waal on the ice under the fire of the enemy. In 1809 Napoleon placed him in command of the right wing of the army of Italy, and he so distinguished himself at the battle of Wagram that he was created a marshal and duke of Tarentum. In 1813, at the battle of Leipsic, he assisted to cover the retreat of the French. He adhered firmly to Napoleon u:>-til the latter's abdication; but during the - undred days" refused to take any command under him. He lived in honorable retirement until his death, which took place on Sept. 25, 1840. See The Consulate and the Empire by Thiers. Macdonald {măk-dŭn'ald\ Qeorge, a Scotch poet, novelist and preacher, was born at Huntly, Aberdeenshire, in 18 2 4, and educated at King's College and Aberdeen University, studying subsequently at the Independent College, Highbury, London, for the nonconformist ministry. H e preached for a short time in Surrey and Essex, but later became a lay member of the

Church of England and devoted himself to literature. He visited the United States in 1872-73, lecturing and preaching in various cities. He published poems in 1855, 1857, 1864, 1868 and 1881. He also published a large number of novels, among which are David Elginbrod; Annals of a Quiet Neighborhood: Robert Falconer; Wilfrid Cumbermede; The Marquis of Lossie; Sir Gibbie; Mary Mars-ton; Lilith; Alec Forbes of Howglen; Thomas Wingfold, Curate; Salted with Fire; The Seaboard Parish; and St. George and St. Michael. His religious and theological works, including The Hope of the Gospel, Gifts of the Child Christ etc., are not so well-remembered; but some attracted no little attention at their publication, particularly Unspoken Sermons and Miracles of Our Lord. His stories are of unequal merit, the Annals of a Quiet Neighborhood, Robert Falconer and Wilfrid Cumbermede perhaps being best known. Many of his children's stories and poems, as At the Back of the North Wind, are delightful reading, full of graceful human fancies, with a tinge of mysticism or rather of the mystery of child-life. He died in

1905-

Macdon'ald, Right Hon. Sir John Alexander, was born in Scotland, 1815, but removed to Canada when a child. He was educated at Royal Grammar School in Kingston, Ontario.and called to the bar in 1836. He was a member of the executive council in the Morris adm i nistration (1847-8), and was a member of various governments, holding different portfolios at intervals until 1858, when, as prime minister, he and his cabinet resigned. He became attorney-general in the Tache-Mac-donald government from 1864 until the union of the provinces in 1867. He was a delegate to the Charlottetown conference in 1864 and to that in Quebec the same year, and was chairman of the London colonial conference (1866-7) when the act of union, the British North America act, was passed by Parliament. He formed the first government for the new Dominion in 18Ŏ7, and was minister of justice until 1873, when he resigned on account of the Pacific Railway charges. In 1871 he was one of Her Majesty's joint high-commissioners in the Alabama claims, the settlement of which was embodied in the Treaty of Washington signed in 1871. He sat for Kingston in the Canadian Assembly from 1844 until the union, and for the same place in the Commons for several terms. In 1880 he visited England with the minister

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SIR J. A. MACDONALD

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GEORGE MACDONALD