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of railways and agriculture, and there they arranged the contract for the construction of the C. P. Railway to which Parliament has given effect. One of Canada's most distinguished sons, he died in 1891.

Macdon'ald, Sir William C, was born in Prince Edward Island in 1831, and was educated at Char-lottetown. He served as one of the governors of McGill University and also as director of the Bank of Montreal. He gave large sums to McGill, and contributed to scientific agricultural education in all the provinces. He was the founder of what are called Macdonald Schools for the encouragement of elementary technical education, and was a generous patron of Victoria Hospital, Montreal.

McDonogh (mk-dŏn'ō), John, American philanthropist, was born at Baltimore, Dec. 29, 1779, and died in Louisiana, Oct. 26, 1850. He removed to New Orleans in 1800, and accumulated a fortune of over $2,000,-000. Between 1822 and 1840 he freed his slaves and sent shiploads of freedmen at his own expense to Africa. He bequeathed the bulk of his fortune to Baltimore and New Orleans for free schools. Since 1873 the McDonogh labor-schools at Baltimore have taught farming to 70 boys each year. At New Orleans the McDonogh schools are conducted in connection with the public schools. His birthday is a school holiday, and his statue stands in Lafayette Square. See Life by William Allan, Baltimore, 1886. McDonough {mk-dŏn1o), Thomas, an American naval officer, born in Delaware, Dec. 23, 1783, He became a midshipman in February, 1800, and belonged to the Philadelphia, which was one of the squadron employed against Tripoli in 1803. He afterwards served in the Enterprise, commanded by Decatur, and participated in the various attacks upon Tripoli in 1804. In 1814, during the second war with Great Britain, he commanded a squadron on Lake Cham-plain, and gained a decided victory over a British squadron under command of Captain George Downie. For this service he was promoted to the rank of captain and was presented with a gold medal by Congress. Vermont also gave him an estate overlooking the scene of the engagement. He died at sea, Nov. 16, 1825.

McDow'ell, Irvin, a United States soldier, was born in Franklin County, 0., Oct. 15, 1818. He graduated at West Point in 1838; and during the Mexican War was brevetted captain for his gallant conduct at the battle

of Buena Vista. Ai tne opening of the Civil War he was commissioned brigadier-general, and placed in command of the army organized for an advance upon Richmond. His plan of the battle of Bull Run was without fault, and his conduct all that could be desired in a general; but he was unable to arrest the retreat of his troops, when they became panicstricken in the afternoon; and for some time afterwards McDowell was made the object of severe and unjust criticism. He was afterwards placed in command of an army-corps under McClellan and Pope, and was with the latter at the second battle of Bull Run, Aug. 29-30, 1862. He died at San Francisco, May 5, 1885.

Macduff, a Scottish nobleman and one of the leading characters in Shakespeare's immortal Macbeth.

Mace, the aril or inner covering of the nutmeg. It is blood-red and somewhat fleshy when fresh. It is prepared for market by drying for some days in the sun. Mace is used as a spice, and its flavor is very similar to that of the nutmeg. It is imported chiefly from Penang and Singapore, where it is received from the Spice Islands.

Macedo'nia {ms'-d'n-), originally a small country in Europe, north of Thessaly and the gean. Perdiccas I, about 700 B. C, is reputed to have been the first king of Macedon, but it was not until the accession of Philip, 359 B. C, that the power of Macedon began to be felt by Greece and other nations. Philip applied himself vigorously to developing the resources of his kingdom, and laid the foundations of the greatness it afterward assumed. His son, Alexander the Great, conquered Persia and brought half the known world under his sway; but a few years after his death the Macedonian empire was divided into four kingdoms under his principal generals. In 168 B. C. Macedonia was conquered by the Romans, and 25 years later was made a Roman province. The country now is under the dominion of Turkey.

Maceo (mă'sā-o), Antonio, a mulatto officer of the insurgent army in Cuba, was born at Santiago, Cuba, July 14, 1848. His career during the ten years' war, 1868-78, displayed natural abilities as a soldier, and at Guimaro he defeated the Spanish under Weyler. He attempted, though unsuccessfully, to start another revolution in 1890. He took part actively in the uprising of 1895, and, second only to Maximo Gomez, was rated the ablest of the insurgent leaders. He was killed by the Spanish in a skirmish near Mariel, Dec. 2, 1896.

McQee', Hon. Thomas D'Arcy, was born in County Louth, Ireland, 1825, and came to America in 1842. When only 17 his newspaper articles attracted attention. Returning to Ireland, he became chief editor