McGILL UNIVERSITY                            "36                                         MACHINE-GUN

of The Freeman's Journal, and afterwards was one of the editors of the Dublin Nation, the organ of the Young Ireland party. He returned to America in 1848, went to Canada, represented Montreal in Parliament for several years, and was a member of the Macdonald-Dorion administration. He was the most magnetic orator in Parliament and an eloquent popular lecturer. His History of Ireland added to his reputation. The lessons he had learned in 1848 caused him to warn his countrymen against extreme views and policies. He earnestly attacked Fenianism, and this led to his assassination in 1868. The Canadian government provided a state-funeral.

McQill' University almost alone among the highei institutions for learning in Canada owes its origin to private endowment. It was founded under the will of James McGill (1744-1811), obtained its charter in 1821, and began its work wth the two faculties of law and medicine in 1829. Although work was seriously hampered for a time by litigation and by lack of funds, an era of prosperity was ushered in by the amended charter of 1852 and the appointment of a new principal in 1855. The supreme authority is vested in the governor-general of Canada as visitor. The corporation includes the governors, principal and fellows, who regulate courses of study, the granting of degrees and affairs of discipline. The principal, who ex-officio is vice-chancellor, is the supreme administrative officer. There are 43 fellows who represent the various departments, the graduates and other bodies. The faculties include arts, applied science, law, medicine and agriculture. There also is a graduate department. Its great work is carried on in McGill College, Royal Victoria College for women and other university buildings in Montreal (beautifully located below the mountain), in Macdonald College at St. Anne de Bellevue, McGill University College of British Columbia and in the affiliated colleges at Stanstead (Quebec), Victoria (British Columbia) and Edmonton (Alberta).

The university is affiliated with Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin Universities. Four theological colleges (all in Montreal) are in affiliation with it: The Congregational College of Canada; The Diocesan College of Montreal; The Presbyterian College of Montreal; and The Western College of Montreal. In 1907 the students numbered 1401. McGill has been fortunate in enlisting the sympathy from time to time of such men as Lord Strathcona and Sir William Macdonald, whose repeated gifts amount in the aggregate to millions of dollars. Dr. Peterson at present is principal and vice-chancellor of McGill.

McGregor, Robt. See Rob Roy.

Machiavelli ( mā'kē--věl'lḗ ), Niccolo di Bernardo dei, Italian statesman and diplo-

I matist, was born at Florence, May 3, 1469, and died there, June 22, 1527. In 1498 Machiavelli was appointed secretary to the ten citizens chosen to direct civil and military. This position, which was one of great importance, Machiavelli held for 14 years, during which he was sent on a large number of foreign embassies. On the restoration of the Medici, in 1512, he was arrested on a charge of conspiracy. Although released, he was obliged for several years to withdraw from public life, and betake himself to literature. In May, 1527, the Florentines again drove out the Medici rulers and proclaimed the republic; but Machiavelli was so distrusted that he was not allowed to take any active part in the movement for liberty. This disappointment, added to his already feeble health, brought on an illness of which he soon died. Machiavelli's writings comprised several volumes, his most importnat work being II Principe or The Prince. The purpose of this book is to reveal the means by which princes and rulers may maintain authority over their subjects; and the author boldly lays down the doctrine that to sustain their power rulers may use all possible means, including fraud and treachery. See Life by Villari and Florentine History by Napier.

Machine'-Gun, a gun of small caliber, but ranking with ordnance rather than small arms, is a weapon of warfare which is loaded, unloaded and fired wholly or in part by mechanical contrivances, and delivers a number of projectiles. Some machine-guns deliver single shots in rapid succession; others a number of shots simultaneously. The famous Gatling gun, invented in 1861 by R. J. Gatling of Indianapolis, combines both these advantages. It has ten barrels, from which no less than 1,632 rounds have been discharged in 84 seconds. The Gatling gun, as well as the Hotchkiss, Gardner and Nordenfeldt guns, is worked by an externally applied force. On the other hand, many machine guns are now operated in an automatic manner. These guns are often operated by the powder-gas driving a piston. This is the principle of the operation of the Colt automatic gun and the Hotchkiss automatic gun (not the revolving cannon). The Maxims and "pompoms" are operated by the recoil of the barrel after firing. The semiautomatic mechanism of the Maxim-Nordenfeldt of the U. S. navy is capable of driving unusually heavy guns. Machir.e-guns are not adapted for accurate shooting; but rather for dispersing masses of the enemy at close quarters. They are light, easily moved with a flying detachment, and well-adapted for mounting in boats. The ordinary rate of firing for a Colt or Maxim gun is about 350 rounds per minute; and the maximum range about 2,500 yards. The success of the artillery of an army